This type of organizational change can cause companies to downsize and/or lay-off employees to cut costs (Lussier & Achua, 2015) which causes leadership and employees tremendous stress. Additionally, stressful organizational situations have a large negative impact particularly in situations that involve punishment and lack of rewards (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). Stress can cause decision makers to cut corners, become more prone to incidents, abuse, and deception (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). Several studies have connected stress to memory loss due to an increase in cortisol production. Moreover, employees can often respond to stress in a negative manner, and stress is known to lead to unethical decision making (Selart, & Johansen, 2011).
Become the leading car in the Indian market. After a great success In 2004 acquired south Korean truck producer Daewoo also listed in new york stock exchange September 27. In 2008 joined with Brazil based Marco polo as well as acquired jaguar land rover in the same year. In the year 2025 of November Tata motors reported a YOY growth rate 21 per cent in medium and heavy commercial vehicles. Passenger car and commercial vehicles along with exports lower by 7 per cent at 38918 units against 41720 in previous year.
In some major cities, some drivers are still rent cars form the third parties or encouraged to purchase late model cars which are cost up to 60 to 70 thousand USD for luxury cars (Jalloh, 2017). Besides, they need to bear most of the costs related to the service such as repairs and fuel. With the new Uber drivers, competitors and price competition increase, drivers’ average earnings and morale are pushed down. Therefore, it is not impressive to driver retention rate. One year after they active, only 50% of drivers are still exist (Research, 2017).
Transforming Public Transportation Technology plays an important role by predicting demand and supply data to feed into transportation planning. Technology can also help in improving reliability of public transportation network by providing visibility on arrivals/departures/route information for travellers for hassle-free journey. As per a World Bank study, by 2031, some 600 million people are expected to live in India 's cities. However, only about 20 Indian cities with populations over 500,000 have any kind of organized public transport systems. In fact, the share of public transport in large Indian cities actually declined from some 70 per cent in 1994 to almost 40 per cent in 2007.
Executive Summary The automobile industry is one with a revolving door of brand ownership and development among a limited number of conglomerates. It is an industry which has a lot of nationalism underneath. Between 2005 and 2008, U.S motor vehicle production declined 13% while China’s production increased 63% and India’s jumped 51%. The disparity between the Eastern and Western markets reflected global economic slowdown which favored cheaper and more fuel efficient vehicles. Tata Motors Limited has both strategic and economic gains from the acquisition of Jaguar and Land Rover.
There is also the perception among the public that corruption is compromising effective enforcement of traffic regulations. There are other problems like traffic congestion particularly in Dar es Salaam city, poor maintenance and ineffective traffic management practices, inadequately developed road network all of which contribute to road traffic accidents in different ways. Road transport and the safety of public is a responsibility of the government and its bodies and is governed by a number of policies and legislation so as to guide safety rules and implementation. The Ministry of Infrastructure and institutions responsible have a role to control and coordinate transportation safety, road development, maintenance (rehabilitation) and management and the licensing of PSV. The Local governments have responsibility for roads under their jurisdiction.
The review of related of this study identifies how traffic congestion is formed and what are its contributing factors. Traffic jams refer to the delay caused by dealing between vehicles on a freeway, specifically as traffic volumes approach a highway 's cubage as stated by Litman (2015). The streets of most cities and even the secondary roads are often clogged and the matters of traffic congestion became so severe that the economy is affected. According to Macairan (2015), there is horrible traffic on the highways. One contributing factor is corruption, it 's probably even worse than misconduct as stated by Liquicia (2010).
However, in the recent past, traffic congestion in Kisumu has overwhelmed the highways and Jomokenyatta and Nairobi-Kisumu roads have not been spared. The dual role of the highway as a national and international road has resulted to traffic jam. This problem becomes worse during peak hours of each working day curbed with presence of pedestrian traffic that conflicts with vehicular traffic. Despite of having Nyamasaria, Kondele Airport bypass that was constructed to ease traffic congestion but the traffic jam persist. Congestion involves queuing, slower speeds and increased travel times, which impose costs on the economy and generate multiple impacts on urban regions and their inhabitants.
Many studies have been indited on the economic costs of congested traffic, and they customarily consider such factors such as cost of traffic value of time lost due to delay, fuel prices, conveyance operating costs, effects on health, and greenhouse gas emissions (Traffic Problems in the Philippines and Proposed Solutions, 2014). Congestion is a real social crisis that needs to be resolute because of its severe effects. In a nutshell, it isolates people from their diverse activities such as business,
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The economies of many developing countries are currently confronted by severe difficulties owing to a combination of lower commodity prices, higher energy costs, falling exchange rates and rising inflation. At the same time, the countries face immense social problems (including a rising urban population and unemployment) which are putting pressure on the nation’s resources and capabilities. The construction industry in a typical developing country is facing reduced levels of demand as a result of adjustment programmes which invariably involve cuts in governments’ capital investment. The challenge, as Ofori (1993) suggests, is that the construction industry should do well despite the severe constraints in its operating environment. There is a growing awareness among developing countries about the significance of infrastructure supply and capacity building in construction for socio-economic development in general, and for the effective implementation of poverty reduction initiatives, in particular.