The founders of group psychotherapy in the USA were Joseph H. Pratt, Trigant Burrow and Paul Schilder. All three of them were active and working at the East Coast in the first half of the 20th century. In 1932 Jacob L. Moreno presented his work on group psychotherapy to the American Psychiatric Association, and co-authored a monograph on the subject. After World War II, group psychotherapy was further developed by Moreno, Samuel Slavson, Hyman Spotnitz, Irvin Yalom, and Lou Ormont. Yalom 's approach to group therapy has been very influential not only in the USA but across the world.
A single-event trauma is the result of exposure to a single traumatic event, for example, a terrorist attack or single event in war. Where as Chronic trauma happens when an individual experiences multiple traumatic instances. This form of trauma can be a longstanding event such as reoccurring physical or sexual abuse, neglect or combat experience. Chronic trauma can also result from a buildup of multiple traumatic experiences throughout one 's
Post-traumatic stress affects over 14 million American adults in any given year Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (n.d). There is help for those who are suffering. Psychotherapy has proven to work with the overall best outcomes for most individuals. According to the Mental Health of America (n.d), cognitive behavior therapy, exposure therapy, cognitive processing therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other family and couple counseling therapy has shown to reduce the strain caused by post-traumatic stress. Cognitive behavior therapy helps change the way in which a person thinks allowing them to overcome their fear or anxieties.
Victims are often affected mentally, financially and physically after a crime. Whether its long-term or short-term affects, counseling is there to help the victims of crimes. Christine primarily focuses on Trauma Informed Counseling, also carried out by licensed professionals that are sometimes provided for free, reduced in cost or funded by the Victim Crimes Compensation Board (VCCB). Christine went on to explain that Trauma Informed Counseling addresses the effect of trauma to children or adults. It is important to counsel and assist the victim’s when trauma has affected them because it could lead to a higher risk of substance abuse, dependence, or mental health problems such as depression or anxiety.
The Trauma, Individual and Collective The concept of trauma driven from ancient Greek, which is meaning 'wound ', in the contemporary the term usually used in medical and psychiatric literature. However, the pain or wound that inflicted upon the mind known as trauma. Ron Eyerman argues that the physical wound cannot be regarded as trauma, because, the trauma is wound that inflicted by emotional shock so powerful that it breaches mind 's experience of time, self and world. The trauma usually appears itself in the dream and flashback, and in this circumstances, the victim became traumatise, the actual trauma itself is not only harmful to the victim, but also it repression of the victim 's memory which brings forth the symptoms (2013.42).
Traumatic memories have been a subject of debate for the last century. The American Psychiatric Association defines trauma as “an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others.” The term “trauma theory” first appears in Cathy Caruth's Unclaimed Experience: Trauma , Narrative and History she explains that, “trauma is not locatable in the simple violent or original event in an individual's past, but rather in the way its very unassimilated nature — the way it was precisely not known in the first instance — returns to haunt the survivor later on (4)”. Bessel A. Van Der Kolk has observed that traumatic memories may be encoded differently than memories for ordinary
In The Empire of Trauma, Dider Fassin and Richard Rechtman analyze the history of trauma and how the notion of trauma became recognized by society. They assess how trauma was constructed by society and the ways in which it became accepted. One of their main goals is understanding how the doubt and suspicion around trauma shifted to a notion that was understood. This understanding included a need for psychological care and empathy to treat the psychologically wounded victims. This is apparent at every event that is categorized as traumatic because psychiatrists and psychologists are always present to offer assistance in situations of violence and threat.
Psychologist: A psychologist is a trained professional who is a specialist in psychology. This is a therapist which studies mental processes and human behaviour by observing and recording how people relate to one another. To perform this psychologists, look for patterns that help them acknowledge and estimate behaviour such as the actions of the patient. This can suggest how he/
Short Course Therapy Standardized short course regimens are an important element of DOTS. TB Programmers using short course therapies have consistently achieved higher cure rates than those relying on longer therapies. Short course therapies are more effective for two reasons: one, they are more efficacious; and two, compliance is higher. Importantly, short course therapies also reduce relapse rates and therefore multi-drug resistance.