This primary injury often initiates a cascade of secondary injury processes that evolve over the first few post injury days. 13 The secondary injuries can occur anytime after the impact and are potentially preventable.14 Prompt surgical intervention is necessary for good outcome. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning provides an objective assessment of the structural damage to the brain following traumatic brain injury.3 Acute CT is useful in identifying those individuals in whom deterioration is a result of a mass lesion and demonstrate extradural, subdural or intracranial haemorrhage, and midline shift, or traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage and ventricular abnormality. The ease of access and speed of data acquisition ensures that, where appropriate, patients benefit from early surgical management which has been shown to improve outcome. 15 2.2 EPIDEMIOLOGY Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of death and long-term disability in people younger than 40 years
The consciousness that affects the size and mass effect must be operated in order to decrease the intracranial pressure and prevent death. Intraparenchymal hematoma posttraumatic Patients with diffuse axonal injury is a problem unique in that traumatic damage is microscopic and not visible on CT scanning. Diffuse axonal axonal injury difuzaInjurie Patients with diffuse axonal injuries have stretched severe brain damage. The goal of treatment in these cases is to prevent other secondary intracranial lesions increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema decrease. Intracranial pressure monitoring practice in patients with diffuse axonal injury and GCS under 8.
With this type of Dementia, the symptoms can be very different due to how badly the blood vessel are damaged after having the stroke. ii. In the scholarly article, Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Disease, written by Phillip B Gorelick and publish in October 2004. It mentions that Vascular Dementia have terrible effects on the brain and your cognitive abilities. iii.
Diabetic retinopathy can progress to this more severe type, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this type, damaged blood vessels close off, causing the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the retina, and can leak into the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the center of your eye (vitreous). Signs and Symptoms At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause
On Bills admission to the unit after suffering an acute ischaemic stroke, a comprehensive care plan was devised using the Nursing Process to accommodate his various issues associated with the stroke. This framework, involving the assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation of nursing interventions guided practice on the two issues focused on in this essay. Issue 1 - Thrombolysis A stroke, is the “rapidly developing signs of focal (or global) disturbance of cerebral function with symptoms lasting 24 hours or longer” (World Health Organisation,1998). In the event of a stroke blood supply to the brain is occluded by a thrombus or an embolus from the heart (Fitzpatrick and Birns,2004). A treatment option for those who have suffered an ischaemic stroke is thrombolysis.
Peritonitis Brenda Rodriguez Nursing 1106- Mental Health Nursing Donna Bledsoe, MSN, RN, PMHCNS April 9, 2018 Peritonitis Peritonitis is a medical condition arising from the inflammation of the peritoneum. The peritoneum is a functional layer that lines and protects the visceral organs. This condition ranges from mild to acute peritonitis, and the inflammation of this layer is an emergency medical situation that requires immediate action since it may progress rapidly to acute peritonitis and become life-threatening (Ramasubbaiah, 2013). In general, peritonitis can be caused by injury, translocation of gut flora, bacteria, fungi, and secondary to other medical conditions or medical procedures, such as, pancreatitis, tuberculosis, hepatic damage, and paracentesis etc. Depending on underlying cause of infection, it can be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary peritonitis.
This may be due to mechanical trauma (blunt or penetrating), thermal injuries,chemical agents or radiation.1 Ocular trauma is an important cause of visual impairment and a leading cause of preventablemonocular blindness.2 Worldwide there are approximately 1.6 million people blind from eyeinjuries, an additional 2.3 million people with bilateral low vision from this cause, and almost19 million with unilateral blindness or low vision.3The global pattern of eye injuries and theirconsequences suggest that 55 million eye injuries restricting activities more than one day,occur each year and 750,000 cases will require hospitalization each year.3,4Data from the National Centre for Health Statistics' Health Interview Survey, conducted in1977, estimated that nearly 2.4 million eye injuries occur in the United States yearly.5 Thisreport also estimated that nearly one million Americans have permanent significant visualimpairment due to injury, with more than 75% of these individuals being monocularly blind.Eye injury is a leading cause of monocular blindness in the United States, and is second onlyto cataract as the most common cause of visual impairment.2,5In developing countries, eye injuries are not only more common but also more severe in theireffect and this may be attributed to socioeconomic background, inadequate safety measures,lack of
Reverse palmaris longus was first described by Captain John T. Morrison in 1916 as an incidental post amputation finding .It may cause compartment syndrome in the Carpal tunnel and Guyons canal. The patient will present with pain and edema in the wrist region. This is an occupational hazard in people whose work involves repetitive wrist movements as it will result in hypertrophy and cause compression of median nerve and or ulnar nerve. This makes the modern day computer professional particularly vulnerable. Symptomatic patients presenting with a palpable volar swelling should be examined for variations in the palmaris longus.
Most hematological malignancies, diseases of the central nervous system such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, multiple sclerosis and motor neuron disease are contraindications to ocular tissue donation as well. Other contraindications include recipients of transplanted organs, prior ocular surgery and ocular diseases that are likely to compromise the graft outcome as inflammation and malignancy. Eye Bank Association of America. Medical Standards. http://www.restoresight.org.