Dressing change was the one of the biggest source of pain as perceived by physician. Intense and prolonged pain often caused by burn injuries, the pain is exaggerated by the need to remove dressings frequently to maintain healing and banish the infection. There are some modern techniques such as skin replacement therapy and early excision that already reduced the amount of dressing changes in a burn injury (1). Choiniere et al (2) investigated the characteristics of pain suffered by burn patients and studied that the time of greatest pain is mostly experienced during procedural dressing changes. The big goal to achieve of zero pain in procedural burn management is an achievable and perfectly realistic goal.
Blood tests and a computed tomography (CT) scan quickly revealed this was not the case. However, blood tests showed signs of hyponatremia. Too much water intake may lead to acute hyponatremia Hyponatremia is a medical situation caused by unusually low levels of sodium - lower than 134 millimoles per liter. Acute hyponatremia, which develops in with in 2days, is regarded an emergency, as it can have fatal neurological outcomes. Seriously low levels of sodium can result in cerebral edema with enhanced levels of intracranial pressure and brain herniation.
The classification of TBI divided into primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries are the direct result that have already occurred to the head by the time the patient first present for medical attention whereas secondary injuries can be preventable and it arises as complications of primary injuries (Le and Gean, 2006). TBI also divided into location (intra- or extra-axial), mechanism (penetrating/open or blunt/closed), and clinical severity (minor, mild, moderate, or severe) (Le and Gean, 2006). In Le and Gean study, the Glasgow Coma Scale (minor: GCS _ 15; mild: GCS _ 13; moderate: 9 _ GCS _ 12; severe: 3 _ GCS _ 8) is used to rule out the severity of head injury. Epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, and intraventricular hemorrhage are primary extra-axial injuries whereas primary intra-axial lesions include cortical contusions, intracerebral hematomas, axonal shearing injuries, gray matter injury, and vascular injury.
The priorities are to detect intraoperative MI early, give effective treatment, and transfer the patient to ICU urgently for further cardiac care.  When myocardial ischemia is because of hypovolemia, hypotension should be primarily managed with IV fluids in the form of crystalloids or colloids and blood products. Inotropic support is required when there is no response to fluid administration.In this case myocardial ischemic changes were because of hypovolemic shock. Hence by correcting hypotension secondary to hypovolemia the myocardial ischemic changes were reversed.
A concussion is considered one of the most complex injuries in the sport for the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment. Athletic trainers must understand that concussion causes ultrastructural changes in the brain and that these changes are not large enough to be visible on neuroimaging such as an MRI or CT scan (Khurana, Kaye, 2012). Athletes who sustain a concussion are three to six times more likely to sustain a second concussion. As an athletic trainer, physician, or other medical professional, understanding this statistics and previous history of concussions is very important information to decrease the likelihood of concussions (Khurana, Kaye,
Typical causes are experience in the traumatic event, witnessing the traumatic event, having someone close to you in a traumatic event, and much more. The most significant neurological impact of trauma is in the hippocampus; where memories from. The hippocampus also helps us distinguish between past and present memories.Thus they lose ability to discriminate between past and present experiences. Post traumatic stress disorders usually affects soldiers or those who serve, however, it can very much happen to anyone. Anyone one suffering from post traumatic stress disorder can seek medicine or treatment with a doctor.
Stress is a chemical response in our body that activates our sympathetic nervous system and inhibits the stress response system (i.e. fight, or flight response). In order to regulate this response, the sympathetic nervous system must enact with the parasympathetic nervous system, which calms us down or can result in a freeze response during a stressful or traumatic event. This interaction is important because Chris is in a constant state of distress, rendering him unable to self-regulate, and the high levels of cortisol have damaged his brain, especially in the hippocampus where emotions and memories are
What You Should Know About Having Healthy Blood Vessels A complex group of blood vessels, arteries in particular, that supplies the brain with important nutrients and oxygen are known as vertebrobasilar arteries. They are responsible for providing blood, which carries oxygen to the brain structures—occipital lobs, brain stem, and cerebellum. The basic functions of these structures include coordination, consciousness, and vision. So basically, each part is important to achieve and maintain good health. Atherosclerosis or the hardening of the arteries is one of the many health problems with blood vessels which could make the blood to flow adequately to the brain structures.
The stages of wound healing are complex and fragile process. Failure to progress in the stages of wound healing can lead to chronic wounds. Factors that lead up to chronic wounds are venous disease, infection, diabetes, and metabolic deficiencies of the elderly. Careful wound care can speed up the stages of wound healing by keeping wounds moist, clean and protected from reinjury and infection. In the chronic wound condition, matrix Metalloprotease are over expressed which delays the wound healing mechanism
As according to Butterworth (2009) there is a need for prompt, effective thiamine supplementation in all patients with chronic liver failure. Because in liver cirrhosis patient will lead to thiamine depletion that will affect brain functioning this will aggravate Mr A
The sepsis, multisystem organ failure, thrombosis something called trauma triads which are a status of blood flow for perfusion states, heel injury and hyper coagulopathy development can predispose to things that can cause pulmonary embolism so those are the things that make it worse for the patient. 2. Discuss assessment of the pediatric trauma patient. Pediatric burns again could have multiple events such as terrorism or an accident. The big thing that concern first with second and third-degree burns is that we don’t concern ourselves with as far as the treatment.
Evaluating antibiotic use and recurrent (Clostridium difficile infection) Risk among hospitalized patients with a history of clostridium difficile infection: Opportunities in Stewardship. In Open Forum Infectious Diseases (Vol. 3, No. suppl 1, p. 1038). Oxford University
Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) are considered neurological disorders, which produce long-term concussive effects. While each can have similar symptoms, it is important to note their differences. PCS is a form of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can be the result of one or multiple concussions (Citation). CTE is caused, not only by multiple concussions, but also by sub-concussive impacts to the brain, where the brain is jolted repeatedly, but not enough to cause concussion (Citation). Moreover, CTE may be the result over time (Citation).