Echocardiography, non-invasive blood pressure measurements, collection and analysis of blood and plasma, tissue analysis, and statistical analysis were all the methods used to perform this experiment. Every experimental group contained saline or isoproterenol and was inserted below the skin and back. Gene expression levels were also measured at 3 and 14 days after the infusion for the cardiomyocyte injury. During the echocardiography, the measurements needed were traced by the levels of the papillary muscles. For the non-invasive blood pressure measurements, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured on the mice’s tail.
Indeed, zebrafish is a good-established model to do preclinical tests on a large number of small molecules/drugs in cardiovascular disease (Berghmans et al. ; 2008; Asnani and Peterson, 2014, Gut et al., 2017). “At now, are available 4 types of chemical screening assays on zebrafish: morphological screens (to screen chemical genetics and toxicology), behavioral screens (eg. use swimming kinetics to quantify the effects of the drug), fixed time-point/labeling assays (to get information on a cellular or tissue level) and fluorescence assays (reporter-based quantifications)” (Mathias et al. ; 2012).
This study was carried out to assess the analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) at a dose of 8ml/kg body weight and to compare it with Ibuprofen as an individual drug therapy and in combination with two different doses of IBU (therapeutic dose 100mg/kg and low dose 40mg/kg), on different animal models in albino mice. A total of 132 adult healthy male Swiss albino mice were used in this study. The analgesic effect was assessed using acetic acid-induced writhing test. The antipyretic effect was evaluated by brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia. While, the anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by two different models; the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the carrageenan-induced peritonitis in which the levels of total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil count, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interferon gamma (INF-γ) were measured in the peritoneal exudates.
Fermentation test is used to determine if unknown #398 uses any oxygen to ferment carbohydrates and acids. Oxidation tests were used to determine if unknown #398 metabolizes carbohydrates and acids by cellular respiration. Both tests are observed by inoculation of unknown #398 into 3 sugar broths: lactose, glucose, and mannitol and 1 citrate (Citric acid) slant. Fifth test, Hydrolytic and Degradative reactions is used to determine if unknown #398 contains enzyme, amylase that hydrolyzes starch after streaking on a starch plate. Next test, inoculation of a urea broth and is used to determine if unknown #398 contains urease that hydrolyzes urea.
3.1 The isolation of Aeromonas from several pond waters, healthy fish, and infected fish The isolate of A. hydrophila grown for 24 hours at 37C on Rimler-Shoots+novobiocin medium should show bright yellow color with white edge. Figure 1 shows the control of isolate A. hydrophila ATCC 7699 grown on RS+novobiocin medium. Isolate selection on RS medium resulted in 95 isolates, presumed to be A. hydrophila, which would run the phenospecies test (morphology and biochemistry), based on the protocol of SNI 7303 (2009), plus one control isolate the A. hydrophila ATCC 7699 obtained from Microbiologic Co. Figure 1. The Isolate of A. hydrophila ATCC 7699 Grown on the Rimler-Shoots Agar Medium + Antibiotic Novobiocin at 37C for 24 Hours 3.2 The
LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. INTRODUCTION Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common and potentially devastating clinical problem. Because prompt proper management of TBI sequelae can significantly alter the clinical course especially within 48 hour of the injury, neuro-imaging techniques have become an important part of the diagnostic work up of such patients, determining prognosis, and guiding rehabilitation.8 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a traumatically induced physiological disruption of brain function, as manifested by at least one of any period of loss of consciousness; any loss of memory for events immediately before or after the accident; any alteration in mental state at the time of the accident
Many concerns have centered in on the possible links between repeated concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CPE. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a serious, degenerative brain disease that affects a person’s ability to think. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy involves the progressive brain damage, particularly in the frontal region of the brain, which controls many functions including people’s judgement, emotion, impulsive control, social behavior and their memory. A signature feature of the disease is abnormal deposits of a protein called tau that accumulates around small blood vessels in brain crevices. Researchers believe that multiple blows to the head may dislodge the tau protein from the cell structure and cause it to form in clumps inside nerve cells.
The long-term effects of alcohol on the brain are really dangerous. Long-term alcohol abuse on the brain can affect the ability to control states of mind, sleeping habits, and your memory. Liver disease caused by the toxicity of alcohol will also affect the brain by allowing toxic amounts of substances to enter the brain causing fatal disorders. Consuming alcohol while pregnant will increase the chances of a fetus being born with learning disabilities or problems interacting with other
The enzyme catalase is commonly found in animal and plant cells, but a substantial amount is found in liver. The liver detoxifies the blood to get rid of substances such as alcohols and drugs, in this case it will break down a toxic molecule called hydrogen peroxide H2O2 into 2 non-toxic products being oxygen O2 and water H2O. Other enzymes in the body that help with breaking down amino acids and fatty acids produce a significant amount of hydrogen peroxide, and without the enzyme catalase, hydrogen peroxide levels in our body could increase thus damaging tissue. A chemical reaction is shown below: 2H2O2 =2H2O + O2 This
The brain is the structure that controls every thought and action, without it, reasoning, moving, dreaming, memorizing information and every other function would be impossible (Myers, 2013). By studying about brain injury and brain disease, we can further understand how brain injury and disease damage the various parts of the brain, which are responsible for the normal functioning of our bodies. This explains how important the brain is, as it helps us perform daily activities (Treves & Rolls, 1998).The brain is a complex structure, divided into many parts and each part serves a particular function. The main structures of the brain are the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebrum which consists of the lobes. The brainstem is responsible for breathing and heart rate.
Caffeine and adenosine were administered to the laboratory rats. There were two methods that tested the hypothesis Motor Activity Experiment as well as in vivo microdialysis experiment. The motor activity experiment measured the motor activity of the rats after caffeine or saline (the control group) was administered into a probe that was implanted into the rats. The total horizontal motor activity was measured after caffeine or saline was put into the probes in time intervals. In the in vivo microdialysis experiment, the laboratory rates were put asleep using Equithesin to allow the experimenter to place concentric microdialysis probes in the left hemisphere of the brain.
Tau proteins are proteins that perform the function of stabilizing microtubules. A damaged tau can lead to Alzheimer’s disease. Dickey’s theory indicated that methylene blue and derivative azure C can lower tau levels in brain of the mice which shows improvement of memory function. In addition to his research, methylene blue reduces tau levels by preventing a heat shock protein called Hsp70. Hsp70 activators significantly increased tau levels and the breakdown of tau is rapidly promoted when Hsp70 is repressed by methylene blue.