Alzheimer’s Disease is defined as a progressive mental deterioration, that can occur in the middle of old age, due to generalized degeneration of the brain. It is the most common form of Dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking, and behavior. Alzheimer’s can, also, impact other cognitive abilities that can lead to interference with the daily life. This disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of Dementia cases. In the 1900s, Dr. Alois Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of women who had died of an unusual mental illness.
Studies have shown that “the greatest risk factor for the disease is increasing age. After age 65, the risk of Alzheimer 's doubles every five years. After age 85, the risk reaches nearly 50 percent.” (About) Researchers have learned that changes in the brain that come with age may damage neurons and become a factor in Alzheimer’s disease setting in. The changes in the brain include shrinking of parts of the brain, mitochondria being produced that malfunction, and brain swelling. The most common form of the disease is late-onset Alzheimer’s.
It is reported that the incidence of pathologic fractures of the vertebra in patients with malignancy is approximately % 10 (9). Although the most of the patients with spinal metastases are asymptomatic, approximately one- third of patients could become symptomatic and present themselves with refractory pain and neurological impairment (10,11) Persistent back pain and neurologic dysfunction due to neural compression and spinal instability are characteristic symptoms in symptomatic spinal metastases (12). When does the surgical intervention necessary is still a matter of debate. Moreover, do the surgical procedures extend the lifespan of the patients with spinal metastases is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific procedure, called corpectomy, to cancer patients with pathologic fracture of the spine and contribution to survive.
RAIN STIMULATION BY DIRECT CURRENT AND MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 1. Introduction Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, progressive (1), idiopathic inflammatory disease (2), which is presumed to be resulting from demyelination of axons and subsequent axonal deterioration in scattered areas of central nervous system(CNS) (3)(4). The progression of MS is highly unpredictable and is characterized at the outset by the episodes of reversible neurological deficits without following any regular pattern, often followed by gradual neurological degradation over time. (5) In the United States, 250,000 to 350,000 patients have been reported to have MS (6), and 50% of patients are presumed to need assistance in walking within 15 years after the MS onset. (7) Despite
In the case study, the patient is diagnosed with depression when he goes to his GP nine months after his daughter’s death. Depression is a mood disorder, and according to the DSM-IV (1), a ‘major depressive episode’ is when an individual experiences at least two weeks of a depressed mood or anhedonia, with children and teenagers possibly experiencing irritability as opposed to sadness. In addition, at least four more symptoms must be present almost all day, every day, for a minimum of 2 weeks. Furthermore, the symptom(s) must be new or much worse than they had been before the depressive episode. The patient in the case study presents with insomnia, weight loss, feelings of guilt, exhaustion, frequently being tearful, and no longer enjoying
The moderate decline stage of the disease is stage four. “In stage four of Alzheimer’s disease clear cut symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease is apparent” (“What Are The 7 Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease?”). The signs and symptoms of the disease are more apparent at this stage and throughout the next 3 stages as the disease progresses. Family and friends can now see that the person with Alzheimer’s is having trouble with simple arithmetic, the person no longer is able to pay and manage his or her finances, and he or she can no longer recall certain details of his/her life history (“What Are The 7 Stages of Alzheimer’s
HD deteriorates an individual’s mental and physical abilities during their most productive years of life and it has no cure. In the later stages of the disease, full time care is required for the patient, with existing non-drug and pharmaceutical interventions being able to relieve a majority of its symptoms. It is interesting to note that the disorder has a higher probability of affecting individuals of Western European decent compared to those of African or Asian ancestry and it affects both men and women (Ross and Tabrizi
Although they are biologically different, both conditions share many of the same symptoms, such as a decline in thought processing ability, memory and ability to communicate. When a person is diagnosed with dementia, they are diagnosed with a set of symptoms and may not know the cause immediately without extensive testing. Alzheimer’s-
In some cases, these symptoms are accompanied by a ringing in the ears, hearing loss, or a headache. The symptoms of labyrinthitis may last anywhere from a few days to several months. The good news is that the condition rarely lasts for the rest of the person
The study found that reducing turnover from high to medium levels was associated with increased quality, but the evidence was mixed regarding the quality improvements from further lowering turnover to low levels Conclusions: In conclusion, the turnover rate for nursing home staff is high. The 1-year turnover rates identiﬁed in this study were 59.4%, 37.0%, and 36.1% for NAs, LPNs, and RNs, respectively. These results add to a rather large body of research over the past 30 years also showing high rates of caregiver turnover. Most important, the study shows that, in general, high rates of turnover are associated with worse quality of care. Application: I plan to use the article to show negative impact of high turnover of
Areas of the brain that have this kind of plaque appear to be shrunken(Gandy). Researchers have linked the formation of these plaques in the brain to amyloid beta forty two. Amyloid beta forty two is a protein that is a natural byproduct of the brains daily functions. Half of the amyloid beta forty two is removed by a healthy brain of person in their thirties in about four hours, however in the elderly it takes ten hours to remove half of the protein. The decreasing speed of removal of this protein leads to higher levels of it, thus resulting in an increased likelihood of the disease causing plaques forming(Alzheimer Disease;
The three criteria that confirm the diagnosis of PTSD include the following: -The disturbance must persists for more than one month -The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment of social or other areas of functioning -The disturbance is not attributable to the effects of alcohol, medication, or other medical conditions (Porth, 2014). 5. Other than combat, what are some other causes of PTSD? Other causes of PTSD include the following: -Weather related disasters(hurricanes and floods) -Terrorist bombings -Airplane crashes -Rape or child abuse -Intimate partner violence -Torture -Brutal assault -Sudden death of a loved one -A difficult diagnosis (Porth,
A hemorrhagic stroke is caused when an artery is ruptured or leaks blood in the brain (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Types of Stroke (2013). Another form of strokes are Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIAs) often referred to as “mini strokes” (AHA/ASA, 2012). These are often warning signs that a stroke could occur if an individual’s lifestyle or risk factors are not modified. During a TIA, there is a temporary decrease in blood supply to the brain; symptoms usually last less than 24 hours before disappearing (NSA, 2012). Epidemiology Fifteen million people suffer stroke worldwide each year (World Health Report, 2002).
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive, declinatory disease of the brain found in people, often athletes, with a history of repetitive brain trauma, including symptomatic concussions as well as asymptomatic sub concussive blows to the head. CTE spreads over a period of years or decades as a result of trauma to the head. The brain of someone who suffers from CTE gradually will deteriorate and over time lose mass. Symptoms of CTE include loss of memory, impulsive or erratic behavior, impaired judgment, depression, aggression, difficulty with balance, and dementia. Mike Webster, Hall of Famer for the Pittsburg Steelers, was the first football player to be diagnosed with CTE, and died of the disease in 2002.
A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that is often caused by a blow to the head or when the head and upper body are violently shaken (Edwards & Bodle, 2014). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is estimated that about 75% of the 1.7 million TBIs that occur annually in the United States are mild TBIs or concussions. The number of emergency department visits for sports and recreation-related concussion has significantly increased by 60% over the past decade. The effects of concussions can be divided into short term, mid-term, and long-term. The short term consequences include various neurologic and cognitive symptoms, but are typically self-limited and resolved with plentiful rest.