Motivational Theories

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Behaviorist, cognitivist, humanistic, and psychoanalytic are four important trends among the present motivational theories. John Broadus Watson and Sigmund Freud are important theorists of these trends. The behaviorist trend shows the influence of different physiological conditions on human behavior, Durso et. al (2016). The writer states that the behaviorist theory prioritizes the environmental factors for pointing out the behavior as per stimuli and reinforcing. After the criticism of behaviorist theory, the cognitive view emerged in 1970s. The cognitive emphases that the human being is conscious and limited by conditions. Cognitivist authors placed the cognitivist theories as a structural and mental functions of study of psychologists, goal…show more content…
As per this theory, Scholars states that the human actions are directed by unconscious motivation and internal drives as the ego which is the personality structure of a person. Oliveira et al. (2011) cited in Durso et al (2016), here, in the study of motivation there are many theories of motivation in the process of development and application of motivation for example the Theory of Needs (Maslow, McClelland, and Alderfer), the Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman), the Theory of Expectations or Instrumentality (Vroom), the Reinforcement Theory (Skinner and Connellan); the Theory of Goal Setting (Locke and Bryan), the Equity Theory (Homans and Adams). For the study of motivation in study sector, the theory developed by Deci and Ryan “the Self-Determination Theory” is used because of its application to educational sectors. Deci and Ryan (2008) states that the Self-Determination theory is an empirically based on human motivation, development and…show more content…
They are often compelled to think, feel and behave differently. In contrast, the autonomous and controlled motivation can drive to demotivation which means absence of motivation. Deci and Ryan (2008), introduced the theoretical assumptions of intrinsic motivation based on the studies made by Bowlby in 1969, White in 1975, and DeCharms in 1984. The writers state that, to feel intrinsic motivated, he/she should be provided with autonomy, competence and sense of belonging as well as autonomy, competence, and sense of belonging are the main psychological needs for the orientation of development of self-determined motivation. Above given three needs are universal and they are found in people from different cultures. But there are some differences with the features of each single like age, gender and culture. As per DeCharms et al (2004), there is autonomy when an individual sees themselves as an actor and the origin of their activities. But if an individual feel that he/she is influenced by external agents by control, rewards, and pressure then the self-determination will not be seen. So, the theory states that some activities are negatively influenced by extrinsic factors because the external factors may control. Thus, the Self-Determination Theory suggests that some behavior can be negatively influenced by extrinsic factors may control an individual sense of
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