They also have been accredited with been a prime mover in Organisational Behaviour as it was the first experiment which essentially emphasised the importance of human needs in the workplace. The experiments modernized management principles throughout the world. The implications of the Hawthorne Studies inspired theorists such as Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor to conduct further research in this field. Key conclusions from the experiments emphasized the importance of having an in depth understanding of people’s feelings and how they impact on work productivity. Elton Mayo perfectly illustrated this by saying “One friend, one person who is truly understanding, who takes the trouble to listen to us as we consider our problems, can change our whole outlook on the work”.
Beginning in the 1800’s, trade unions “began forming around specific occupations” with the sole purpose of garnering rights for workers including: “universal voting rights, pension benefits and the prohibition of child labor” (Swedish Institute 2010). As labor unions continued to evolve, a greater proportion of workers found the benefits of organization and communal bargaining to be exceedingly beneficial to their individual welfare. Unions not only promoted the improvement of individual workers rights, but demonstrated the importance of social cohesion and mutual responsibility in bringing about change on a larger scale. Trade unions proved to be the vehicle through which workers could maintain a basic standard of living and belong to a community with the backing to affect change. The historical significance of labor unions in Sweden is unsurpassed by most other nations and their continued prominence contributes to the persistence of welfare state goals in Sweden.
Fairness in organizations is essential due to it affects behaviors and results in the workplace, and can foster effective functioning of organizations (Cropanzano, Bowen, & Gilliland, 2007). Fairness theory is important in the management literature and been put forward as a means of integrating much of the relevant justice research (Folger & Cropanzano, 1998). Supervisors or managers take action earlier can have greatest significant impact on judgments related to fairness (Lind, 2001). Uncertainty is likely to be high and fairness judgments are most likely to be reevaluated, when the organizational environment, internally or externally, is undergoing strategic changes (Lind & van den Bos, 2002). In this situation, a manager’s actions encouraging fair treatment are more likely to be incorporated into the general fairness impression of employees in the workplace than would be the case in more stable times (Williamson & Williams, 2011).
Due to completion in labour market, organization have realized that in enhance the employee’s skill they can acquire competitive advantaged. it supported by Hall and Moss (1998) (Nwokocha), the employer that want to strengthen their organization and employees should be dare in making investment in training program and career development program. Training is a process of acquisition of knowledge and skill to perform their task and increas their current performance in the organization (Goldstein, 1980)( Niveen). Besides that, training program also give opportunities for employee to get promotion and improve their capability as employee and being competitive either internal or external in labor market (Butler and Waldrop, 2001). it also supported by Tomlinson (2002)(Bidisha), said that those organization that has well trained employees especially in latest technologies can lead the competition.
Theoretical Framework Social Exchange Theory (Set) The Social Exchange Theory (SET) refers to the human relationship and social behavior that are rooted in an exchange process. Social exchange theory (SET), intended to explain the social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between employee and employer. But in any relationship, people and the employee always weigh the risks and rewards. The set is the most influential conceptual paradigms in the organizational behavior and this theory makes perfect sense to all employees because most of the employee spend their lives at their jobs and for them, work means give and take. Through this theory, even everything that is negative about to their job, the benefits or rewards will outweigh the risks.
About the industry selection of the protection, Liszt says that even though the countries are in the agro-industrial stage of development, they have no necessity to protect all industries, or even all of the infant industries, instead only to protect the infant industries which have two conditions. The first condition is that some industries which cannot participate in the competition because of their lack of technology, low productivity, and the higher cost compared with the foreign market, namely, the infant industries which just begin to develop but subject to strong competition abroad. The other type is the infant industries which have the promise to develop. That is to say through the protection these industries can become some comparative advantage industries. In other meaning, Liszt advocates for the protection of the infant industries which have good future, and this protection is limited.
The concept of decent work "is based on the understanding that work is not only a source of income but more importantly a source of personal dignity, family stability, peace in community, and economic growth that expands opportunities for productive jobs and employment." (Cohen & Moodley, 2012) The notion of decent work emphasizes four elements: rights at work, employment, social security, and social dialogue. The first pillar of rights at
Findings showed that consensus is vital to the creation of legitimate labor standards (Verma & Elman, 2007). They proposed the characteristics of feasible and just labor standards: long-term effectiveness, protection for all workers, subject to external pressures, and the inclusion of basic human and labor rights (Verma & Elman, 2007, pp. 62-63). By providing this model, they stress the significance of labor standards in ensuring the safety and development of workers all over the world which will benefit nations and consumers as
Democracy and Market Liberalization Name : Institution : Date : Democracy and Market Liberalization The theoretical and empirical literature devoted to the relationship between economic market systems and democracy remains rather inconclusive. Although democracy makes the task of reformers more difficult, with the risk of impeding market liberalization, democracy increases the subjective support to the market. Even if individual income increases democracy, market liberalization is not sufficient to trigger the demand for democracy. Democracy cannot naturally emerge as a by-product of market liberalization but democracy may generate influential support for market liberalization.
The term of empowerment is rarely defined clearly (Greasley et al., 2004) and has been used very loosely by practitioners and academics (Mondros and Wilson, 1994 & Russ and Milam, 1995). One possible reason for this lack of clarity is a the tendency for empowerment to be attached to management concepts, for example, Total Quality Management (TQM) (Greasley et al., 2004). Empowerment has been associated with the redistribution of power so that employees have an increasing degree of flexibility and authority to participate in the decision-making process of an organization (Greasley et al., 2004). Employee involvement does not necessary mean any de jure sharing of authority of power. It is employers who decide whether and how to empower employees so as to generate commitment and enhance their contribution to the organization (Willkinson, 1997).