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Trisomy 21 Case Study

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The condition pictured in this lesson is Trisomy 21, which is a well-known condition called Down syndrome. It is the most common birth defect in the United States, and it’s named after the physician who first diagnosed it as a syndrome, John Langdon Down. (1) Down syndrome, in most cases, affects every cell of the body, and can cause multiple difficulties mentally and physically. Despite the hardships people born with Down syndrome have, 50% will live longer than 50 years old, and with the right support, live meaningful lives. (1) Trisomy 21 occurs when a person has 47 chromosomes rather than the normal 46. The physician can usually diagnose the condition of Down syndrome when the baby is born, and confirms the diagnosis with an extra blood…show more content…
Some of these characteristics include a small head that can be abnormally shaped and the inner corner of the eyes may be rounded rather than pointed. They may have smaller ears, shortened hands that are wide, and a flat nose. On a person with normal genes will have many creases on the palm of the hand, in comparison a person with Trisomy 21 will have just one long crease in the center of the palm. The nape of the neck may have some extra skin. Mental characteristics of a person with Down syndrome include acts without thinking, they use poor judgment, short attention span, and learning/ development delays. Some may feel frustrated/ angry because they may realize their…show more content…
People born with Trisomy 21 are also more likely to be born with heart defects. Congenital heart disease affects almost half of the babies born with Down syndrome. CHD can lead to high blood pressure in the lungs, the heart not able to pump blood to throughout the body, and cyanosis, which is blue-tinted skin because of the lack of oxygen in the skin. Down syndrome also affects the immune system and makes it much harder for the immune system to fight off infections. People with Down syndrome are twelve times more likely to die from an infection than somebody without it. Children with Down syndrome are also more likely to have epilepsy. Epilepsy is when a person gets many seizures over time.(4)Children with Down syndrome may some of these conditions including many more. Not only do they deal with Down syndrome, but also everything that comes with
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