Villegas-Navaro, A., Rosas-L, E., & Reyes L., J. (2003). The heart of Daphnia magna: effects of four cardioactive drugs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmocology , 127-134. The purpose of this article was to test four cardioactive drugs (ouabain, verapamil, metaproterenol and metoprolol) to see what effects they have on the heart rate of Daphnia magna.
In contrary, the antagonist drugs act as the blocker the way of the body’s natural agonist and also they avoid cell response to agonist. However, these two totally different target receptors can actually be used together. For example, in the case of Asthma. In the respiratory tract, albuterol will stick to the adrenergic receptors so the smooth muscle will relax and expand the airways, also known as bronchodilation. At the same time, the antagonist drugs, ipratropium, attaches to cholinergic receptors and obstruct the attachment of acetylcholine and limit the airways which called bronchoconstriction.
Inverse targeting: Inverse targeting is where by the drug is targeted to avoid or bypass uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The reticulo endothelial system function is reduced by administering large amount of blank colloidal carrier systems such dextran sulphate . By injecting this colloidal carrier, it binds to the reticulo endothelial system instead and therefore saturating the binding sites leading to the drug been redirected to organs outside the reticuloendothelial
Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. Insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range. Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in the same manner as insulin...except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted.
An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily. To function efficiently, amylase requires certain conditions. The effect of different sodium chloride concentrations in this on the rate of reaction of amylase will be investigated in this experiment along with the use of starch and iodine.
The corpus luteum begins to degenerate by Day 23 to 24 because the LH level is low. Thus, the production of estrogen and progesterone also declines. the blood supply to the endometrium continues to increase due to the rising levels of progesterone produced by the corpus luteum of the
As the cardiac function is reclining, the blood flow in the kidney and the glomerular filtration rate decrease which make the blood to be distributed away from the kidney. But the blood flow improves when the body is at rest which would cause nocturia. When he goes for an echocardiogram, he was diagnosed with left ventricular hypertrophy. This is due to the heart remodeling mechanism, where the muscle thickens and was triggered by heart when there is an increased in the workload of the left ventricle.  There are a few factors that could contribute to the development of Mr. Rowan’s symptoms.
The decline in glucose leads to seductions in insulin secreting tumor. The hypoglycemia i.e. the fincling of a low blood glucose concentration together with an increased insulin concentration demonstrates in appropriate feedback Such a characteristic of a tumor in another example with patient showing increased blood calcium concentrations should have low levels of PTH in circulation. The high PTH levels in patient’s measures the indication of malfunction, the level of the parathyroid is associated aften with parathyroid adenoma. The patterns of secretion of hormones vary tremendously.
Instead, axons from two groups of hypothalamic neurons - the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) – terminate in the posterior pituitary. These specialized neurons produce the hormones ADH (antidiuretic hormone), also known as vasopressin, and oxytocin. When a person becomes dehydrated, osmoreceptors in the brain trigger ADH release into the systemic circulation. ADH travels to the kidneys where it promotes water reuptake in the epithelial cells lining the collecting ducts. The exact mechanism of action of ADH remained obscure until 1990, when Peter Agre discovered a class of protein channels, now called aquaporins, which selectively allow water molecules to cross the cell membrane.
Resistance happens when a drug is no longer effective in controlling a medical condition. Resistance arises for many reasons, for example the effectiveness of barbiturates (used to cure mild seizures and sleep disorders) often decreases when used repeatedly because taking it repeatedly causes the body to increase its production in the liver of mixed function oxidases that metabolise the drug, therefore reducing the drug’s effectiveness. An increase in the rate of production of an enzyme that metabolises the drug is a common reason for drug resistance. Another reason for drug resistance is the down-regulation of receptors (decrease in the number of receptors). Down-regulation happens when the receptors are stimulated repeatedly which causes the receptor to be broken down.
Explain why this increased venous pressure causes net filtration to increase in the hepatic capillaries, leading to ascites (swollen and fluid-filled interstitial space of the abdomen). • In alcoholic cirrhosis, the portal vein becomes scarred and blocked, causing an increase in hydrostatic pressure. Which leads to an increase in hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries. Alcoholic cirrhosis also causes the liver to under produce albumin. This lowers osmotic pressure in the vasculature, enhancing filtration out of the
Labetalol and Carvedilol block beta and alpha-1 receptors. By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,
Too much insulin can cause hypoglycemia because the liver produces less glucose and the cells of the body absorb more glucose. Too much glucagon results in too much glucose in the bloodstream because it is not absorbed by the cells and can result in high blood sugar. Not enough insulin causes a rise in the blood glucose level because the glucose remains in the bloodstream. Not enough glucagon results in dangerously low blood glucose levels