This interaction can either activate or repress the expression of the downstream gene(s). In many, but not all, cases is the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor itself that is regulated, for instance by binding of a small molecule or even a single atom such as iron. The next level is composed of certain network motifs where the single transcriptions factor is part of a regulatory module. Three examples of such motifs are depicted in Fig. 24.9 B.
Mitophagy introduces to the autophagy of mitochondria. It is an important cellular process that is responsible for breaking down cellular contents. It is saving energy and safeguarding against accumulation of damaged and aggregated molecules. Mitophagy trusts on the existence of main controllers of autophagy. Some of the proteins are established to be included in mitophagy but not in common autophagy.
Inside the cell, ara-C rapidly gets activated by many phosphorylation steps to form ara-CTP (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate). When this ara-CTP is incorporated into DNA/RNA, it inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis and triggers cell death. Thus DNA replication for mitosis is affected and the cells cannot divide rapidly. The first phosphorylation step is carried out by the rate-limiting enzyme Deoxycytidine
Content: • Introduction to Transcription Termination • Rho Factor (ρ) • Rho Dependent Termination • Rho Independent Termination Introduction to Transcription Termination In prokaryotes there are two types of termination that may occur. These are Rho Dependent Termination and Rho Independent Termination. Termination is controlled by specific nucleotide sequences called terminator sequences. These sequences are defined as points where the rate of addition of the next RNA nucleotide is slower than the rate of nucleotide release. Rho Factor (ρ) Introduction Rho (Greek lettering - ρ) factor is an essential prokaryotic protein.
1994) produced by soil microorganisms. It degrades cyclopropanoid amino ACC (the immediate precursor of the plant growth regulator ethylene) to form ammonia and α-ketobutyrate. After the first finding of ACC deaminase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ACP (Honma and Shimomura 1978), various pioneering research work conducted, such as in Jacobson et al. (1994), Glick (1995) and Penrose et al.
Bio Chem lab Report 04 Enzyme Biochemistry Group Member: Chan Man Jeun Duncan (16002621) Law Sze Man (16000478) Introduction Enzyme is a protein base structure substance in our body. It works at a biocatalyst that will catalyzing the chemical reaction, which helps to speed up the chemical reaction. Enzyme could only function in specific shape, and the shape of enzyme is depending on the environment, therefore it is hard for an enzyme to function well in an extreme environment. The aim of this experiment is to see can the enzyme functions normally in different environment(pH, temperature and salt concentration) via using starch solution, amylase from saliva, 0.5M HCl solution, 0.5M NaOH solution and NaCl solution, and using iodine solution
Abstract The transformation principle suggests that bacteria use DNA as their genetic material and are able to exchange their genetic material via a process of transformation. Griffith had theorised the concept of the transformation principle using two strains of bacteria and studied their ability to recombine. Avery and MacLeod followed his studies and suggested DNA was sensitive to DNase, and that the enzyme would destroy the bacteria's ability to exchange genetic material and transform into a new strain. This was then tested in the labs at Wits by second year students where they studied the transformation of ampicillin sensitive E. coli to ampicillin resistant E. coli. The results obtained there were similar to those of Avery and MacLeod,
Cubam, on the other hand, recycles to the cell surface. Intrinsic factor is degraded by actions of lysosomal protease (most likely by cathepsin L enzyme which differ from the intestinal proteases) in the lysosome, .. and the Cbl is released, (inhibitors of lysosomal function block secretion of Cbl from cultured opossum kidney cells) . Released vitamin B12 traverses the lysosomal membrane and enters the cytoplasm, a process that probably involves the protein LMBD1 and ABCD4. LMBD1 is a 61 kDa lipocalin receptor-like protein locate to the lysosomal membrane while the ABCD4 is ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter . Mutations in the gene encoding LMBD1 or ABCD4 are responsible for the rare inborn defects named cblF and cblJ respectively with similar phenotype and clinical symptoms.
BCL-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) was firstly known as a gene whose product causes resistance to apoptosis in lymphocytes. Later studies, identified a number of both pro- as well as anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-related proteins (12). Bax, as one of the Bcl-2 family’s pro-apoptotic members, is located in cytoplasm, but will, under certain stresses, translocate to the mitochondria and oligomerize, resulting cytochrome C to release from mitochondria (13) as it induces the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, which promotes the cytochrome C release (14). This in turn activates Apaf-1and Caspase 9, and forming apoptosomes, which induce apoptosis (15). Skin cancer's incidence is expected to increase according to the continuing increase in life expectancy, changes in environmental conditions, dietary habits and lifestyle and increased solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
Tomato health management can b particularly changing due to resistant being overcome by new pathogen races and to introduction of new pathogens by global agriculture markets. The most important gene family involved in the recognition of pathogen examine in tomato has been the resistance genes (R-genes). Avirulent (Avr) pathogen recognition is done by R-genes and initiation of defence mechanism in the form of hypersensitive response (HR). Plant immune system can also respond to an infection through sensitization of their basal immune system that shares elements with the R-gene mediated response (Postel and Kemmerling 2009). PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV.TOMATO STRAINS AvrPto AND AvrPtoB: In tomato, the resistance against Pst which causes the bacterial