Trypanosoma Research Paper

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“Trypanosoma: A Pathogenic Cause of Sleeping Sickness”
Introduction

Figure 1 Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis a genus of asexual unicellular protozoan flagellates that have a spindle-shaped body with an undulating membrane on one side, a single anterior flagellum, and a kinetoplast. These protozoa are transmitted by bloodsucking insect vectors. Half of their life cycle is spent inside of insects and they are spread to humans and domestic animals by insect bites. Trypanosomes acquire micronutrients, carbohydrates, protein, and lipids from their host. The lymphoid and hematopoiesis system of a wide range of host organisms are affected by trypanosomiasis. A variety of different vertebrates, including animals and humans, are infected by different
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It is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Discovered in 1908-1909 is commonly transmitted to animals and people through the feces of triatomine bugs. The triatomine bug is nicknamed the “kissing bug” because it frequently bites humans on the face or around the eyes; the insect then defecates near the bite and the infected fecal matter may be rubbed into the bite wound by the bitten individual. Vaccination for the Chagas Disease has not been found. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Chagas disease is an endemic throughout South America where around 6-7 million people are infected. In mummies from southern Peru and northern Chile, the oldest record of Chagas disease, nearly 9,000 years old. The Chagas disease is known to be found in the poor and rural population. As people sleep the triatomine bugs are typically active. Near the site of the bite, the triatomine bugs draw blood near faces and lips of host and will defecate. When the host rubs the feces into their eyes or mouth, the wound then breaks skin and infection occurs. The T. cruzi then enters the blood and invades tissues of the heart and central nervous system, as well as macrophages and monocytes. The parasite infection can include domesticated animals such as dogs and cats, as well as wild animals. These are all capable of acting as reservoirs of the pathogen. Acute, intermediate, and chronic are the three phases of Chagas disease. Depending on the immunocompetence status of the patients these phases can show no symptoms of disease or can become life-threatening. At the entry wound swelling of the side of the face and eyelids may occur near the initial bite wound. In the acute phase, if untreated, the infection can spread causing irreversible damage to the heart or brain. Following the acute phase is the intermediate phase during which most people are asymptomatic and few or no parasites are found in the blood.

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