“Trypanosoma: A Pathogenic Cause of Sleeping Sickness” Introduction Figure 1 Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis a genus of asexual unicellular protozoan flagellates that have a spindle-shaped body with an undulating membrane on one side, a single anterior flagellum, and a kinetoplast. These protozoa are transmitted by bloodsucking insect vectors. Half of their life cycle is spent inside of insects and they are spread to humans and domestic animals by insect bites. Trypanosomes acquire micronutrients, carbohydrates, protein, and lipids from their host.
Q1. Entomotoxicology is the use of insects on decomposing corpses to determine and quantify the drugs which had been consumed by the individual prior to their demise. According to Campobasso (2004), as the maggots feed on the corpse, they consume the drugs available in the body, which can affect their growth or complicate their life cycle. He describes how maggots from different corpses which had been proved to have different amounts of drugs such as morphine varied in their development cycle and general characteristics (Campobasso, 2004). This claim was further supported by De Carvalho (2012) in which the study had shown that the presence of morphine in the maggot body would cause the acceleration of its development.
1- Extraction method No. 1: Fifty grams of powdered aerial parts of portulaca oleracea were hydrolyzed by using reflux for 9 hr. with 300 ml of 2N hydrochloric acid then the extract cool at room temperature ,filter and wash the residue with 2N of ammonia solution. The residue dried overnight at 60ºC ,the final step involve the extraction of the residue with 250 ml of chloroform by using soxhlet ,the final extract cool at room temperature ,then filter and evaporate to dryness by using rotatory evaporator at 40ºC to yield (2.264 gm),as show in scheme (2-1). 220.127.116.11-Extraction method No.2: Fifty grams of powdered aerial parts of portulaca oleracea extracted by soxhlet with 500ml 0f 70% ethanol for 8 hr.
tapeworm infection is the infestation of the digestive tract via a species of parasitic flatworm, known as tapeworms. stay tapeworm larvae grouped in cysts are now and again ingested by means of eating undercooked meat. as soon as inside the digestive tract, a larva can develop into a very big grownup tapeworm. additionally, many tapeworm larvae cause signs in an intermediate host. tapeworm eggs are generally ingested via food, water or soil contaminated with human or animal faeces.
The rats produced major economic losses in history (McCormick., 2003).The R.rattus is very invasive disease causing species and equally effect the man and wildlife (Banks., 2012).Many zoonotic diseases are caused by R.rattus as plague, cowpox etc and usually occur in Eurasia (Michael Begon, 2003) Serious damage can be considered in rice by ratts. It expurgates down developing stalks and devour emerging grain. The replacement round technique is operative. The destruction persistent causes due to effective burrowing, housing, and substitute nourishment (wood et al ., 2003). R. rattus destoryed 5-10% of the growing macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) nut crop per year Farmers able to stand the damage up to 10% of growing nuts with less financial losses, and able to withstand losses up to 30% if the damage is suffered before 120 days post-anthesis (dpa) (Tobin et al ., 1997) Movements of Norway Rat showed day-to-day movement that was recorded as 65 m. rats caught adjacent to shacks or pits have little shifts in contrast to those taken from periphery of
Babesiosis is a parasitic enzootic disease that is triggered by the infection of vertebrate erythrocytes with the protozoan Babesia species. Babesiosis is considered one of the most significant tick-borne infectious diseases of both domestic and wild mammals, and when it infects humans, it still poses substantial diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This condition shares a plethora of clinical features with malaria (one of the most important parasitic diseases) and can be fatal – especially in the immunocompromised and the elderly. The characteristic microorganisms that we now perceive as babesia were first identified by Babes in 1888 when he was trying to figure out the cause of hemoglobinuria in cattle. Only five years after that, Kilbourne
MODS was the commonest cause of death. Conclusion: Renal complications were seen as the commonest complication of malaria. Early diagnosis, treatment specially the fluid management reduces the overall mortality. Key words: Falciparum malaria, Renal complcations, Urinary abnormalities, HypovolemiaMalaria is a protozoan disease transmitted by the bite of the anopheles mosquitoes and characterized by fever, splenomegaly, anaemia and chronic relapsing course. It is one of the most important parasitic diseases of the humans affecting hundred and three endemic countries with a population of over 2.5 billion people and causing between one and three million deaths each year worldwide.
ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common worldwide parasitic disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is commonly transmitted to humans by accidental ingestion of oocysts voided in cat feces or tissue cyst in meat. Congenital transmission may occurs when an uninfected mother acquires primary infection during pregnancy . The acquired infection is usually asymptomatic, while congenital one may lead to abortion, stillbirth or severe abnormalities in the newborn. A total of 190 pregnant women were interviewed with questionnaire about known risk factors (age, residence and occupational status, raw vegetables and fruits intake, source of drinking of water, milk intake, frequency of meat intake, consumption of raw, undercooked meat or processed meat, frequency of eating in restaurant and fast food outlet , contact with cat and soil, history of
careful blending was attempted with constant mixing. ph of the mixture was then raised to 5.5 with 1n Naoh and the mixture was left at room temperature (220c) overnight (Ph5.5 is the isoelectric purpose of Igg/ F(ab)2). Centrifugation of solvent protein: The above mixture was spilled in the axis containers in equivalent sums and centrifuged at 2500rpm for 30 minutes. The supernatant was disposed of and the encourages were gathered. Dialyses of the accelerated
The temperature inside the flask was adjusted to 60-65 0C ) chloroform (3.25mL, 0.04M) was introduced in small portion with stirring by maintaining the temperature to 60-65 0C during addition. The mixture was stirred for 2 hours. Excess of chloroform was removed by steam distillation from alkaline solution. The solution was allowed to cool and then it was acidified with dilute HCl (1%). The acidified solution was steam distilled until no more oily drops were collected.