Diazotized Sulphanilic Acid 1. Dissolve 1.1 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate in 50 mL of water in a 100 mL conical flask. 2. Add 4 g of sulphanilic acid to the solution and heat it until it dissolves. A small amount of suspended material may render the solution cloudy.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Calcium's melting point is 842°C, 1548°F, 1115 K and boiling point is 1484°C, 2703°F, 1757 K. Calcium is a silver-white soft metal, that reacts to halogens, water, and acid. This metal was first discovered by a man called Humphry Davy, in 1808 through the process of electrolysis while doing a mixture of lime (CaO) and mercuric oxide (HgO). Calcium is one of the most abundant elements on earth, forming over 3% of the earth's crust. It has 6 stable and several radioactive isotopes Calcium is the third most abundant metal in the earth’s crust, but
Additional silica flux is added and oxygen is blown through the molten material. The silica flux reacts with the remaining iron to form a slag, and the oxygen reacts with the remaining sulfur to form sulfur dioxide. and the sulfur dioxide is processed through the acid plant. After the slag is removed, a final injection of oxygen removes all but a trace of sulfur. The resulting molten material is called the blister and contains about 99% copper by mass.
Decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide when heated to 900°C at 101.325 kPa. Heating calcium carbonate to 900°C under atmospheric pressure decomposes into quicklime and carbon dioxide (industrial CO2 production): (reaction conditions are high temperature ) Calcium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid and is effervescent , producing calcium chloride , water and carbon dioxide (CO2 produced in the laboratory): Water mixed with CaCO3 will be fed with excess carbon dioxide and calcium bicarbonate solution will be formed. Calcium Carbonate reacts with a carbonate solution (rainwater) to produce calcium bicarbonate. To the turbid lime water, CO2 was introduced and the precipitate disappeared. The principle of these phenomena is:
9. Theoretical yield = (150.22g/mol)(3.5 x 10^-3 mol of nucleophile) = 0.525 g Actual yield = 0.441 g, Percent Yield = (0.441g/0.525g) x 100% = 84% 10. Percent recovery from recrystallization = (0.172g/0.441g) x 100% = 38% 11. The data table provided below obtained melting point data for crude product, pure product, and mixture of the pure and 4-tert-butylbenzyl. 12.
The active ingredients in the alka seltzer tablet are “As the tablets dissolve, the sodium bicarbonate splits apart to form sodium and bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions react with hydrogen ions from the citric acid to form carbon dioxide gas (and water). This is how the bubbles are made.”(Scientific American) These bubbles are representative of a chemical change and the resulting carbon dioxide should increase the water 's density. This may actually increase the volume of the water taking longer to boil, this difference may be minuscule, even negligible, but there 's a possibility for distinct change in results. This scientific American puts it best “For the reaction to occur,
91.5 lb/72 (molar mass of FeO)) ∴Selectivity of Fe=(10.714 moles Fe)/(1.271 moles FeO)=8.43 (mole Fe)⁄(mole FeO) Example 3.6: Chemical Equation and Stoichiometry Question A common method used in manufacturing sodium hypochlorite bleach is by the reaction: Cl_2+2NaOH→NaCl+NaOCl+H_2 O Chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, after which the desired product is separated from the sodium chloride (a by-product of the reaction). An aqueous solution of NaOH containing 520.45 kg of pure NaOH is reacted with 386.82 kg of gaseous chlorine to give 280.91 kg of NaOCl. (a) What was the limiting reactant? (b) What was the percentage excess of the excess reactant used? (c) What is the degree of completion of the reaction, expressed as the moles of NaOCl formed to the moles NaOCl that would have formed if the reaction had gone to completion?
Balanced Chemical Equation: Cu(s) + 4HNO3(aq) —> Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2NO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) Reaction 2: when sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is added to copper (II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2), a double displacement reaction will occur. Copper and sodium will displace each other to create copper (II) hydroxide and sodium nitrate. Balanced Chemical Equation: Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) —> CuOH2 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq) Reaction 3: When copper (II) hydroxide is heated, a decomposition reaction will occur. The reaction will decompose forming two compounds, Copper (II) oxide, and water. Balanced Chemical Equation: Cu(OH)2 (s) + Heat —> CuO (s) + H2O (g) Reaction 4: when a sulphuric acid is added to the solution that contains copper (II) oxide, a double displacement reaction will occur.
Vol. 85. CRC press, 2004.p 4-8 Thallium Thallium is a soft metal with a gray color bluish, like lead and are getting most of the thallium from iron pyrites, where there are traces of this element as one of the impurities in it. Also it included in some metals such as crooksite, and lorandite. English scientist Sir William Crookes discovered thallium in 1861.