Enzymes are proteins that significantly speed up the rate of chemical reactions that take place within cells. Some enzymes help to break large molecules into smaller pieces that are more easily absorbed by the body. Other enzymes help bind two molecules together to produce a new molecule. Enzymes are selective catalysts, meaning that each enzyme only speeds up a specific reaction. The molecules that an enzyme works with are called substrates.
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate.
Methods of Data Collection Measuring the independent variable: The pH (the independent variable) is being tested on the turnip peroxidase to observe the reaction rates. 5 levels of pH are required for these series of reactions so pH buffers of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 are to be placed in each of the waters that will be put into the cuvettes for the experiment. Measuring the dependent variable: A colorimeter must be used in order to calculate the reaction rate/absorbance level of the turnip peroxidase when the different pH levels affect it. The colorimeter can be used to measure the transfer of heat to or from an object.
As pH increases or decreases to get closer to the optimal pH --in this case it is 7 for this particular enzyme-- the rate of reaction peaks and is highest at that point, which is described by the molecular shape and structure of the enzyme at its optimal pH. When turnip peroxidase is at pH 7, the active site is able to fit perfectly with the substrate, therefore explaining why the reaction rate is fastest at this point. Accordingly, if the active site is disrupted, the substrate cannot fit perfectly causing the reaction rate to slow down. This can be supported by the data because the reaction rate gradually increased from pH 3 to pH 7 and reached its maximum at pH 7. Once it did reach the optimal pH, the reaction rate continuously decreased
Enzymes are a form of protein that lowers activation energy and speeds up reactions as a catalyst. They are made by the stringing together of an abundant amount of amino acids and folded into a specific shape for chemical reactions. Turnip Peroxidase is the enzyme used in this lab and is derived from the vegetable. Enzymes are not used up or permanently altered by their environment Peroxidases are found in a range of organisms and function to break down alcohol (H2O2) and creates byproducts of oxygen and water. In this experiment, the reducing agent guaiacol is added with the substrate, hydrogen peroxide, to create water and oxygen.
Title: Enzymes Abstract: Enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions by speeding up the chemicals activation energy. Temperature and pH are just two of the factors that affects enzymes and their involvement with chemicals and the way they function. Throughout this experiment, we conducted a study on peroxidase, which is an enzyme. The following information consist of the recordings of when it was exposed to four different pH levels to come up with an optimum pH and IRV at the end. Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that are used in reactions in living organisms.
An enzyme can not be considered a reactant because, like catalysts, the enzyme is never used up in the reaction and is reused again in another chemical reaction. In this lab, the source of hydrogen peroxidase was the potato solution. The substrate that the hydrogen peroxidase acts upon is the hydrogen peroxide.
In this lab, the optimal environment for an enzyme was observed in bacterial and fungal amylase. An enzyme is a substance produced by a living organism that is coded by proteins to catalyze chemical reactions throughout the body. Enzymes are what make the chemical reactions in living organisms possible. Enzymes act as catalysts to reactions, they lower the activation energy needed for reactions. However, enzymes require particular environments to function, and without proper conditions, enzymes
It was hypothesized that the optimal pH for the enzyme was pH 7 while the 1.0 ml peroxidase would have the best reaction rate. At the end of the experiment the results prove the hypothesis to be incorrect. INTRODUCTION Enzymes are proteins that allow a reaction to speed up. These proteins are made up of monomers known as amino acids.
Abstract This experiment showed that temperature, concentration and pH all affect the rate of enzyme reaction differently. Enzymes are very important in organisms and therefore understanding how and why they work the way they do in specific conditions is crucial. The results showed that an increase in temperature would also increase the reaction rate, until a temperature that was too high, where the enzymes began to denature and therefore the rate of reaction was slowed down. As concentration was increased, the reaction rate continued to increase.
An enzyme biologically defined is a catalyst produced by cells to speed up specific chemical reactions without changing the chemical reaction at the end of the reaction.1 There are several factors that affect the rate an enzyme speeds up reactions; temperature, pH, substrate concentration and enzyme concentration.2 However, when there is too much or not enough of these factors (depending on the enzyme) it can destroy the enzyme entirely. In this experiment we tested how temperature affects enzymes. We observed the enzyme activity for the enzyme Alkaline phosphatase when it was put in an environment of 33°C and 86°C. Because Alkaline phosphatase has the ability to extract phosphate groups from substrates, once the Alkaline phosphatase was in the specifically heated environment for five minutes, we measured it’s activity by inserting para-nitrophenyphosphate.
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
Introduction In class, a series of experiments were performed that pertained to the enzyme known as catalase, which converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen. Due to peroxide being toxic to the tissues of both plants and animals, both possess the enzyme catalase, which breaks into two non-toxic compounds: water and oxygen gas. Enzymes are proteins that react to certain substrates to create a product, and continue doing so afterwards. Methods and Materials To test reactions between catalase and hydrogen peroxide, groups of three to four people were formed.
They can only quicken reactions that will eventually occur, but this enables the cell to have a productive metabolism, routing chemicals through metabolic pathways. Enzymes are very specific for the reactions they catalyze; they make sure the chemical processes go in the cell at any given time. Peroxidase was the enzyme being testing in this experiment. A peroxidase is an enzyme that acts as catalysts, which occurs in biological systems. Peroxidase is found in plants, which they play a role in helping to minimize damage caused by stress factors or insect pests.