Two Factor Theory: Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

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1. HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
Frederick Herzberg studied the correlation between employee attitude and workplace motivation. He wanted to find out what caused people to feel satisfied or dissatisfied when it came to the workplace. After spending countless hours interviewing employees about what made them feel both good and bad about their jobs, Herzberg developed a theory of workplace motivation called the ‘Two-Factor Theory’. This theory is based on the assumption that there are two sets of factors that influence motivation in the workplace by either enhancing employee satisfaction or hindering it.
The first of the two are called hygiene factors. Herzberg used the term 'hygiene ' to describe factors that cause dissatisfaction in the workplace, are extrinsic, and are linked
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Social needs, also known as belongingness needs, refer to the need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance. Social needs are important to humans so that they do not feel alone, isolated and depressed. Friendships, family and intimacy all work to fulfill social needs. An employee must try to ensure that each his employees know one another, encourage cooperative teamwork, be an accessible and kind supervisor and promote a good work-life balance.

Esteem needs refer to the need for self-esteem and respect, with self-respect being slightly more important than gaining respect and admiration from others. Employees would feel that this need is being fulfilled if they are offered praise and recognition when they do well, and are offered promotions and additional responsibility.
Self-actualization needs describe a person 's need to reach his or her full potential. The need to become what one is capable of is something that is highly personal. Since this need is very individualized, an employee or manager can account for this need by providing challenging work, inviting employees to participate in decision-making and giving them flexibility and autonomy in their jobs.

3. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY

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