Understanding Diabetes and Knowing How to Control It Better There are two major types of Diabetes Mellitus. You have the Type I diabetes mellitus, which is DM caused by an autoimmune disorder. This type usually begins in childhood. In this condition, the pancreas is no longer producing the adequate amount of insulin, so the glucose level is increased in the bloodstream. Insulin is very important because it attaches to the cells and sends a signal to start absorbing sugar from the bloodstream.
Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) leads to symptoms of the disease. How this loss occurs is not known, but generation of ROS are considered important mediators. Oxidation of dopamine by enzymes leads to the formation of H2O2, which is usually inactivated in a reaction involving glutathione, but can react with Fe2+ and form highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. In PD, GSH levels have been reported to be decreased in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the severity of the disease correlates with GSH loss. How this oxidative stress occurs is not well understood, as GSH synthase levels have been shown to be normal in the substantia nigra.
Hypothesis: If one-day pinto bean seedlings are soaked in a water solution, 1% NaCl solution, and 3% NaCl solution, the seedlings exposed to higher sodium concentrations will have decreased cellular respiration rates. Treatments: This experiment involved three treatments and a control. The goal of the experiment was to see how different levels of NaCl affect the rates of cellular respiration in day-old pinto bean seedlings. In this experiment the rate of cellular respiration was measured by the amount of CO2 in ppm per gram of substance produced by a given treatment group or the control over the course of ten minutes. CO2 levels were measured using a CO2 sensor.
In order to accurately determine the amount of dosage to be administered to each animal, the rats were all weighed one hour prior to the experiment. I ran a total of twelve groups in the Open Field Apparatus with each group running two rats each . The experimental rats were administered an IP injection using a 2% dosage of LiCl solution at 85 mgs/kg. Control groups were given a baseline injection of NaCl. The Open Field Apparatus was placed over 48 12x12 tiles in a dimly lit room .
Diabetic eye disease includes diabetic retinopathy, cataract and glaucoma. What is Diabetic Retinopathy? Diabetic retinopathy is one of the complications of diabetes out of tripathy. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar levels) causes damage to the cells at the back of the eye, known anatomically as, the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of loss of vision.
Diabetes Diabetes is a group that results in too much sugar in the blood (high blood glucose). One major point I’m going to talk about insulin. And the second major point I’m going to talk about is metabolic disorder. And the third major point I’m going to talk about exercising. And diabetes is one of the most rapidly spreading disease in the world.
INTRODUCTION AKI is a syndrome of rapid loss of kidney function and oliguria, which is associated with adverse patient outcomes. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a functional or structural abnormality of the kidney as determined by blood, urine or tissue tests or by imaging studies.AKI is estimated to occur in up to 15% of hospitalized patients and up to 60% of critically ill patients. Despite advances in health care, the incidence of AKI is increasing in both developed and developing countries which is associated with severe psychological and financial trauma (1). The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) has increased over the past few decades and the reported incidence of AKI in different regions of the world is quite variable. In
It is the most common micro vascular complication of people with diabetes. The risk of developing diabetic retinopathy is increased with high blood sugar and high blood pressure. There are two types of diabetic retinopathy, proliferative and non-proliferative. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is where
ClinicalEndocrinology 2012 76 911–918. Michalaki MA, Vagenakis AG, Leonardou AS, Argentou MN, Habeos IG, MakriMG, et al. Thyroid Function in Humans with Morbid Obesity. Thyroid 2006;16:73-8 Bastemir M, Akin F, Alkis E, Kaptanoglu B. Obesity is associated with increased serum TSH level, independent of thyroid function. Swiss Med wkly 2007;137:431-4.
The usual dosage and frequency of leukeran is 0.1-0.2mg/kg*day for 3-6 weeks. It needs periodic blood controls to see if the WBC cells decrease excessively to check if there is any necessity to reduce the dosage or to stop the treatment permanently .
Consequently, prenatal nicotine exposure also triggers programmed apoptosis, changes in cellular maturation and perturbed cellular replication and differentiation (5,14). Rodents that were exposed to nicotine via maternal infusions throughout gestation show persistent postnatal elevated levels of ornithine decarboxylase activity (associated with cell damage and even cell death) (5). The DNA content within the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex can be reduced due to gestational nicotine exposure, decreasing the total number of brain cells (5). Furthermore, serotonin and glutamate can be impacted by prenatal nicotine exposure, especially the reduction of serotonin turnover in the midbrain, forebrain, pons and cerebellum
Sue Kirkman discussed the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes in older adults. According to this article the incidence of diabetes increases with age until about age 65 years. "Older adults are at high risk for both diabetes and prediabetes(Kirkman 2012)". Kirkman pointed out benefits of identification of prediabetes and asymptomatic type 2 diabetes in older adults. This would determine whether primary or secondary preventive interventions would likely be effective in treating condition.