Arteries may get damaged due to the high intake of homocysteine. High consumption can make the blood to get blocked and it can make high risk to our body. This type of disease is called thrombus. There should not be any clot on your blood vessels otherwise it will block your lungs which is called pulmonary embolism, also the brain which can cause stroke, or into the heart which can even cause to the heart attack. The people who suffer from high levels of homocysteine are at a high risk so they need to consult doctor for the further treatments.
For Mr. Tripson’s urine test, the physician wants to examine his dissolved particle-to-water levels, or osmolarity. Polyuria is a condition in which you lose a lot of water in your urine; the osmolarity test will determine how much water and what concentration of particles are in it. The two particles the physician is specifically interested in observing are glucose and ketones, both of which are indicators of diabetes mellitus. A presence of ketones in your urine could mean your body is burning fat instead of glucose for energy, which is common in diabetic patients, and could potentially lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a complication of diabetes that can be fatal. In this case, the urine result
However, in the second stage of pernicious anemia, the immune system becomes overactive. As a result, intrinsic factor antibodies form and attack IF and destroy them. This inhibits vitamin B12 from moving to the small intestine and absorption. The third stage in a normal body is, after absorbing vitamin B12, it is stored in the liver and bone marrow to manufacture erythrocytes. However, in the third stage of pernicious anemia, the amount of vitamin B12 is decreasing in the liver and bone marrow, which
Renal causes affect the kidney directly, they include sepsis (when the immune system is overwhelmed by infections which causes the kidney to shut down), medication which are toxic to the kidney e.g. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, and others) etc. lastly the post- renal causes include, obstruction of the bladder; the kidney produces more urine but due to the obstruction it acts like a dam instead of emptying and soon forces the kidney to shut down and kidney stones which only causes the disorder if only one kidney is present. The main cause of this conditions is the accumulation of waste products in the kidney. In some cases kidney failure can be treated and they can go back to normal
Hypertension in such patients is volume dependent, and high weight gains are also associated with the development of pulmonary oedema in susceptible individuals. Fluid retention increases progressively with deteriorating renal function and thus contributes to the development of heart failure and hypertension. The third unique feature is the nature of vascular disease in this population, which has led to scepticism about the adoption of treatments and treatment strategies proven in the general population. The characteristic feature of the vessels is calciﬁcation- to a large extent the result of hyperparathyroidism in renal disease in peripheral and coronary vessels (Allan J Collins et al., 2003). The extent to which atherosclerosis in such vessels differs from the general population and the efficacy of established treatments such as statins—remains uncertain and unproven.
The atrial flutter was causing the heart to beat faster, which decreased the time available for the left ventricle to fill with blood, causing a decrease in cardiac output. This is evident by the confusion, and increased need for oxygen. The patients son reported that the patient had begun using oxygen throughout the day when, normally, she was only using it at night. The left ventricle, contracting abnormally, started having blood flow back into the lungs, increasing the after load of the right ventricle. Increased pressure in the arterioles, surrounding the alveoli, causes leaking to occur and deposit fluid into the alveoli.
Complications include: (Grossman & Porth, 2014). • Anemia- When your kidneys are not working correctly, your body may not have enough red blood cells • Skeletal Disorders- ESRD can cause bone tenderness and muscle weakness. • Heart disease- Heart disease is the most common cause of death among people on dialysis. Also, fluid build-up can occur, you may notice a faster heartbeat and swelling that starts in your feet and ankles and moves upward. • Neuromuscular disorder-Peripheral neuropathy usually affects the lower limbs more than the upper limbs.
Overthinking worsens stress. It twists things around, makes one worry over useless things, ruins the situation and creates problems that are not there in the first place. Studies show that 84% of people who are stressed is caused by overthinking (Anderson, McGovern & Norris, 2003). Physical Effects of Stress The observable physiological changes caused by stress are hair loss, weight gain, brittle nails, general appearance of exhaustion, advancement of aging process, and weakening of skin 's healing process. Cortisol, known as the primary stress hormone, is a steroid hormone that is formed in the adrenal glands in reaction to stress (Talbott, 2007).
The damage will cause the walls to harden over time and lose elasticity and increase blood pressure, as well as increase the work load on the heart. (Neighbors) The harden vessel cannot expand and accept the surge of blood that is produced by the heart. Once the inner wall of your artery is damaged from injuries, inflammation or disease; this creates a weak area or tear in the artery walls where the buildup of plaque and other cellular waster products will accumulate at the site and develop into a process called Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is characterized by deposits of fatty or lipid materials in the thickening of the walls. Should this process continue and build up inside the walls of your arteries, it will slow down, or even block the rate of blood flow to your heart muscle.
It is generally caused by underlying conditions, such as high blood pressure or heart disease. These conditions damage our heart, making the heart muscle thick. The damaged muscle either cannot slow down properly to let the pumping chambers of the heart, the ventricles, fill with enough blood, or it cannot contract well to let the ventricles pump out enough blood.