Biology: A Case Study Of Diabetes

1406 Words6 Pages
Title: A case of diabetes
Subject: Biology
Group: 4A
Name: Moldir
Surname: Bizhanova
Submission Date: 28.11.2017

1. Distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes by comparing and contrasting their definitions, bodily effects (complications), target groups (people affected), warning signs (early signs and symptoms) and current treatments in a table Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes
Definition Also called insulin-dependent diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It is a disease of autoimmune in which pancreas’s insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed, leading to high level of glucose in the blood. (Medical Dictionary 2007) Can be called as non-insulin-dependent-diabetes. The inability of the body to respond effectively
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Which organ is responsible for regulation of blood glucose levels in humans? Name two hormones that this organ secretes to regulate blood glucose levels.
The organ which has a responsibility for blood glucose levels’ regulation is pancreas. It produces two important hormones which control the level of glucose: glucagon and insulin. Cell clusters in this organ are named by pancreatic islets. Each islet has alpha cells (make glucagon) and beta cells (make insulin). Those hormones are secreted into the circulatory system. Balancing the glucose level in the blood relies to the antagonistic effects of insulin and glucagon (Reece 2011, 910).
References:
Reece, Jane B., Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky and Robert B. Jackson. 2011. Campbell Biology. 10th edition. London: Pearson
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Describe in detail how these hormones regulate blood glucose levels. After eating a meal, the level of glucose in the body increases and it promotes to secrete insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas. Then insulin triggers the uptake of glucose from the blood to the cells by decreasing the level of blood glucose. Or insulin can stimulate the formation of glycogen from the glucose which also reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood (Reece et al., 910). If the concentration of glucose in the blood is low / below the normal range, it leads to the secretion of glycogen from the alpha cells. Glycogen will change the energy stores such as glycogen in the liver to the glucose (stimulates the breakdown of glycogen) by increasing the level of sugar in the blood(ibid).

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