Introduction ‘Language gives shape and organisation to thought’ (Winch, Ross- Johnston, March, Ljungdahl & Holliday, 2010. Pg 467). Several fascinating aspects of language include it being a form of communication, which interprets information and passes messages from one person to another. For each individual language is different due to cultural backgrounds and beliefs, different communities and also the individuals’ capabilities. Speaking to a person verbally is not the only form of language, it can be writing, reading, listening and even body language.
To avoid this narrow cognition of meaning, many fields of studies explore the concept of multimodality and its modes from various perspectives. Thus, there are different approaches that engage in the research of the multimodality defined as “understanding of human meaning making” (ed. Litosseliti, 2010, p. 194). Farther, Rick Iedema (2003) observes that multimodality “provides the means to describe a practice or representation in all its semiotic complexity and richness” (p. 39). Multimodality, at this point, is multidimensional and its modes might be understood differently depending on various planes, like context or situation.
Secondly the stories were considered, interpreted and analyzed framed by the so-called narrative scheme. The narrative program of the stories were described as a sequence of four phases (table 2. ): 1. Motivation (or destinator (Dr.) in the original method), 2. Competences, 3.
Hall’s second system is language. To produce meaning, the concepts must be translated into common language. Halls refers to language as “anything from written words, spoken sounds and visual images, to music, fashion and even facial expressions”. A stereotype is a form of representation but a stereotypical representation is often inaccurate, partial, negative and limited. According to Hall and Itzin, a stereotype is an exaggerated, misleading and distorted representation of a group of people or a person through the reduction of that group or person to a few essential characteristics.
He describes how they could voice it in many ways. One way was through the government and the other was through their own voice. When it comes down to it Mill states that it is wrong to silence somebody’s opinion. Mill goes on further to prove his point by responding to criticism. There are four pieces of criticism that Mill looks to respond to.
Communication is “a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviour” (Communication, n.d., para. 1). As humans, we naturally interact with others therefore, it is important to understand our personal communication styles, and how they can affect communication. This essay will attempt to cover my personal communication experience, as well as, three main concepts of Eric Berne’s theory with a link to my experience. Moreover, a discussion of reflection of my own communication skills, interpersonal professional communication style and cultural influences.
Indeed, communication experts have difficulty agreeing on one definition to cover every situation. There is some of the definition of the communication such as communication is a transaction whereby participants together create meaning through the exchange of symbols (Rothwell, 2010). This definition are divided into four major points which is communication as a transaction, people working together, the creation of meaning and the exchanged of symbols. Each major can be elaborating as (1) communication as transaction. It is involved two or more people who construct meaning together.
In order to communicate this proposition, they will encode it by using linguistic codes which are conventional to pair the meaning of the idea with physical forms (text, utterance). The hearers perceive the text or utterance, decode it and interpret the meaning by guessing what thought of the speakers it is most likely to convey. (Goatly,
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Definition and backgrounds of theories and concepts connected to this study are provided in this chapter. Reviews of previous studies on code-switching, bilingualism and computer mediated communication which are homogenous to this study are provided. 2.1. Bilingualism 2.1.1. Definition of bilingualism The notion of bilingualism is frequently connected to the idea of code-switching since a person should have ability to speak using two or more than one variety.
Popov by his work presented relationship between text and discourse. According to V.G.Borbotko text as a linguistic material and discourse is always in the text. . Discourse - the form in which this communication takes place. The text gives food for thought, discourse - explicit expression of thinking. "