(sympoms of typhoid fever) Transmission:- The bacteria which causes typhoid fever may be spread through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions, and sometimes also by flying insects feeding on feces. Causes of Typhoid Fever are: 1. Poor sanitation, contaminated water and infected milk are some of the main factors responsible for typhoid. 2. Flies contaminate the food with germs.
With the exception of a limited number of human-host-adapted serotypes (also referred to as the typhoidal salmonellae), the members of the genus Salmonella are regarded as zoonotic or potentially zoonotic (Acha and Szyfres, 2001). ). S. gallinarum and S. pullorun affect poultry, causing fowl typhoid and pullorum disease respectively. Poultry may be infected by many types of Salmonella, often as symptomless carriers. S. typhimurium, S. Virchow and many serotypes are commonly incriminated in cases of human food poisoning caused by poorly cooked fresh
Salmonella Typhi Introduction The typhoid bacillus or simply typhoid is caused by salmonella typhi bacteria, it usually and mostly infect only humans. Entric fever and paralyphoid are from other species of salmonella, this infect all domestic animals and also human. The typhoid fever is an acute and a dangerous disease that is caused by bacterium salmonella entrica serovar Typhi. The bacteria enters the body of human trough the ingestion of contaminated substance ( i.e water, food e.t.c) from the mouth which then affect the intestine wall and multiplies in the lymphoid tissue and thereafter infect the blood stream and lead to bacteremia. Typhoid fever or Salmonella typhi major epidemics have been linked to pollution of public water.
Typhoid fever is a very serious disease that you can get from almost anywhere in the world.Parts of the world where sanitation levels and hygiene are poor you will be at a higher risk of getting the typhoid disease. It is mostly common in parts of the world except highly advanced countries like the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan. The places that are highly risked is Asia, Africa, and Latin America, South Asia is highest at risk. About 300 people that travel outside of the United States get typhoid fever. There’s about 22 million cases and 200,000 deaths of typhoid fever that occur worldwide every year.
Introduction: Helicobacter pylori are a ubiquitous organism that can be seen in 50% of general population. Its association with various gastric disorders are well established in numerous studies after its discovery in 1983. Peptic ulcer disease is the most studied disease related to H Pylori infection. H. pylori are seen in 90% of duodenal ulcer and 75% of gastric ulcer Patients. This bacterium is also involved in the pathogenesis of several extra gastric diseases, such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas ( Maltomas) gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ) and gastric carcinomas.
RESEARCH ARTICLE “Effect of temperature with different time interval on Salmonella.typhi introduced in avian meat” Conducted by: Dr. Urooj zafar Prepared by: Mehar.un. Nisa Submitted Date: 22/Oct/2016 Course Title: Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases Course Code MIC-646 Research article Effect of temperature with different time interval on Salmonella.typhi introduced in avian meat Mehar.un. Nisa --student of M.Sc. (Final) Evening Program-2016 Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Sindh Pakistan Keywords: salmonellosis, heat resistant stain, avian strain Abstract: Of Approximately pure culture of salmonella. Typhi, representing 5 different temperatures with different time interval none was found to be as heat resistant, the strain is used more heat sensitive at above 55◦C temperature.
(2004, August 24). Retrieved September 30, 2017, from https://www.unicef.org/media/media_20475.html References Ayele, D. G., Zewotir, T. T., & Mwambi, H. G. (2012). Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia. Retrieved September 30, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3473321/ African Health Observatory “Analytical summary- Malaria.” (n.d.) Retrieved September 30, 2017, from https://www.aho.afro.who.int/profiles_information/indexphp/Ethiopia:Analytical_summary_-_Malaria CDC Global Health- Ethiopia (2016, April 11). Retreived October 1, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/countries/ethiopia Skolnik, R. (2012).
Enteric fever (Typhoid fever) is a systemic disease mostly occurs in developing countries and continues to be a major public health problem. [1,2] It is caused by dissemination of Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi serotypes A, B and C. Enteric fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 27 million cases with 200000-600000 deaths annually.  The subcontinent India bears the brunt of the disease both in terms of absolute number of cases and drug resistant strains. [3,11] The annual incidence is highest (>100 cases/100000 population) in south-central and southeast Asia; medium (10-100 cases/100000 population) in the rest of Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand);
These findings were in accordance with a study conducted by Edmiston et al(11) who found that common organisms colonizing infected sutures include Serratia spp, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Peptostreptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacteroides fragilis and Serratia spp. Although a skin commensal ,it is siginificant to know that staphylococci are responsible for a number of skin infections(32) (33) and will undoubtebly play a role in causing a wound infection in presence of a suture. Gram negative organisms such as Klebsiella, pseudomonas are non- commensals having a role in skin