Ultrasonic Expression: The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Bluetooth Technology

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Abstract— People with serious visual impairments can travel independently, using a wide range of tools and techniques. They are taught how to travel safely, confidently, and independently in the home and the community. Use of cane has many disadvantages such as limited perception and lack of depth assessment. In this paper, we have proposed a system that overcomes the difficulties faced by the cane by using ultrasonic sensor, GPS and GSM. Keywords — Ultrasonic sensor, GPS, GSM.Bluetooth HC-05, Voltage Regulator, Android Application. I. INTRODUCTION Human eye is probably the most important sense organ as it gives the sense of sight, allowing people to observe things around them and thus learn more about the surrounding world.…show more content…
It is clear from the above block diagram that the ultrasonic sensor attached with the system will be connected to the microcontroller for detecting any obstacle in front of the stick and send the digital signal to the microcontroller for converting it into speech. The accelerometer attached with the system will detect the falling movement of blind people and send the signal using Bluetooth technology. The Cell phone paired with blind people will detect the real time location of the system and send it to the remote location. VI. PROJECT METHODOLOGY Walking stick for visually challenged using ultrasonic sensors, microcontroller, GPS, speech ic, speakers and vibrators is integrated in a long stick. The first step is to detect the distance and speed of an obstacle from the user and is done by using ultra sonic sensors. VII. COMPONENTS USED a) ATMega16 Microcontroller The ATmega16 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega16 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed. [3] Fig.3 Pin dia. of…show more content…
The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. [3] Port C (PC7..PC0): Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PC5(TDI), PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs.

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