Perfusion : Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through". Tests verifying that adequate perfusion exists are a part of a patient's assessment process that are performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating a body's skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill.
2.5 Intravascular ultrasound: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an imaging modality that uses ultrasound to generate realtime imaging of vascular structures. Images of the vascular lumen are obtained by placing a catheter with a miniature transducer on its distal end into a vessel. Vascular endothelium is assessed. IVUS makes use of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT), which is based on energy transferal by a change in capacitance. Apte, Chang, Khuri-Yakub, Mioni, Nikoozadeh, Sarioglu & Zhuang (2014:107) states that CMUT are silicon micromachining processes with a ring shaped array utilized in intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) and IVUS.
Retinal detachment The retina is a complex layer of tissue that chemically converts light into electronic impulses and sends these impulses to the brain for analysis. It is made of layers of nerves, connecting cells known as neurons, supporting cells, and specialized cells known as rods and cones that do the actual conversion from light to chemicals that stimulate the nerves that transmit the impulse to the brain. Behind the rods and cones is a layer of pigment that absorbs light and helps the rods and cones to recover chemically for the next light impulse.
The main objective of this project is to track the Perfusion index of critically ill patients, which helps in giving more information about the patient’s health data in a more convenient way. We used a Pulse Oximeter sensor and obtained the IR LED values and RED LED values separately and used those values to find the PI Index value. Changes in PI can also occur as a result of local vasoconstriction (decrease in PI) or vasodilatation (increase in PI) in the skin at the monitoring site. These changes occur with changes in the volume of oxygenated blood flow in the skin microvasculature.
It is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel, including the body’s major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arm, leg, neck and head. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound i.e. color Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler. • Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of colors to show the direction and speed of blood flow through a blood vessels. • Power Doppler is a sensitive technique then the color technique and it shows more detail about blood flow.
DISCUSSION The Main anesthetic goal in Intraocular surgery is the maintenance of a stable intraocular pressure, as the sudden raise in Intraocular pressure during open eye surgery can cause prolapse of iris or lens and vitreous loss leading to permanent loss of vision. Conventional laryngoscopy with general anesthesia is usually practised in paediatric patients coming for Intraocular procedure. This causes sympathetic stimulation with resultant increase in IOP, with associated raise in MAP & HR.
Abstract— Brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke, which occurs due to artery bursting in the brain, causing bleeding in the surrounded tissues. Diagnosing brain hemorrhage, which is mainly through the examination of a CT scan enables the accurate prediction of disease and the extraction of reliable and robust measurement for patients in order to describe the morphological changes in the brain as the recovery progresses. The aim of this project is to help radiologist as well as medical students in diagnosis of brain hemorrhage in more refined manner by feeding CT images & identify the type of brain hemorrhage using watershed algorithm along with artificial neural network. Keywords - Computed tomography (CT), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Back Propagation Network (BPN), Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). I. INTRODUCTION This Brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke, which occurs due to artery bursting in the brain, causing bleeding in the surrounded tissues.
The diagnosis is based on the physical exam, chest X-ray and oxygen levels and by ruling out other diseases and conditions. 4.3.1 Imaging. A chest X-ray can reveal which parts of lungs and how much of the lungs have fluid in them and whether heart is enlarged. In addition chest x-ray demonstrate diffuse and extensive bilateral interstitial and alveolar infiltrates.
The endorsement of two new Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes recognizes echocardiographic myocardial strain imaging and myocardial contrast perfusion echocardiography as emerging technologies, often an essential beforehand period while a code is promoted to payable status. CPT codes define medical, surgical and diagnostic services and procedures. These codes interconnect uniform data about medical services and procedures to healthcare providers, payers, administrators and accrediting bodies. Vital as fiscal and logical tools. Innovative codes are essential when new skills enter clinical practice, as was the case for myocardial strain imaging and myocardial contrast perfusion echocardiography.
It 's like putting together puzzle pieces with each part required to show the final picture. Because the tissues in the brain and spine are bathed in special fluid,a lumbar puncture procedure is used to extract fluid from the spinal area. This test looks for higher amounts of the presence of certain proteins that allow the immune system to stage attacks on itself. This may be a vital test.
3-CT It is radiological exam that uses x-ray tube to produce cross sectional images of the body by rotating around it and detecting the radiation coming out of it. This modality able to provide internal soft tissue details so it asses to reveal if any lymph node or organ are enlarged. CT are helpful in looking for any lymph in abdomen, pelvis, chest, head, and neck(2). and hepatosplenomegaly, or filling defects in the liver and spleen. CT is used for initial staging, assessing response to therapy , and for follow-up.(3)
A vital "knowledge gap" is addressed in this experiment, that is to study the effect of stimulants and depressants, such as ethanol, melatonin, epinephrine, and dopamine on HR, individually and in a mixture. Said depressant and stimulant chemicals were administered to daphnia individually and afterwards, in combinations. The motivation for research in this area was to explore whether two select depressants or stimulants when administered together have a synergistic, antagonistic or no effect on HR. Data was determined in the form of Beats Per Minute (BPM). The data was analyzed by plotting the calculated BPM for each test solution from each daphnia.
Two other things that you can measure to get a better idea of the athletes biofeedback is heart rate and galvanic skin repose, sweating. You can use a combination of devices to look at neuromuscular re-education and follow with musculoskeletal injury.