Ultrasound Sonography Case Study

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Assessment of First Trimester Vaginal Bleeding Using Ultrasound Sonography
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Introduction:
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is any discharge of blood from the vagina. It can happen any time from conception (when the egg is fertilized) to the end of pregnancy. Some women have vaginal bleeding during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy.
Vaginal bleeding during the first trimester has been estimated to occur in 16% of all pregnant women, while the frequency of spontaneous abortion is traditionally estimated as 10-20%. The clinical approach though helpful is of limited value. Despite the latest technological developments and laboratory diagnosis the desired goal of early recognition is not achieved.
Prior to the era of ultrasound
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The fetus is definitely still inside the uterus (based usually on an exam using ultrasound), but the outcome of your pregnancy is still in question. This may occur if you have an infection, such as aurinary tract infection, become dehydrated, use certain drugs or medications, have been involved in physical trauma, if the developing fetus is abnormal in some way, or for no apparent reason at all. Other than these reasons, threatened miscarriages are generally not caused by things you do, such as heavy lifting, having sex, or by emotional stress.
• Completed miscarriage: You may have a completed miscarriage (also called a spontaneous abortion) if your bleeding and cramping have slowed down and the uterus appears to be empty based on ultrasound evaluation. This means you have lost the pregnancy. The causes of this are the same as those for a threatened miscarriage. This is the most common cause of first trimester
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This would be based on your medical history and ultrasound, and in some cases laboratory results. Bleeding from an ectopic pregnancy is the most dangerous cause of first trimester bleeding. An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, most often in the Fallopian tube. As the fertilized egg grows, it can rupture the Fallopian tube and cause life-threatening bleeding. Symptoms are often variable and may include pain, bleeding, or lightheadedness. Most ectopic pregnancies will causepain before the tenth week of pregnancy. The fetus is not going to develop and will die because of lack of supply of nutrients. This condition occurs in about 3% of all

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