Internal monitoring may be used when external monitoring of the fetal heart rate is inadequate, or closer surveillance is needed. (15) It’s also an ultrasound based technology, the monitoring is done during pregnancy, labor, and delivery to keep track of the heart rate of your baby (fetus) and the strength and duration of the contractions of your uterus. (16) This is not always a benefit for women and their families. (3) CTG machine provides graphical printed data. On the graph, there are two lines.
None of the methods women use to abort are completely safe. For instance, one of the most common methods used is suction aspiration, where the doctor uses a tool to suck the fetus into a bottle. During this procedure, great care must be taken to prevent damage in the uterus that could lead to hemorrhages and more complications that could drastically affect the woman (Abortion Some Medical Facts). Moreover, infections may easily happen because of the tools that the doctor could or could not had disinfected. Also, during suction aspiration or other methods used to abort, women could suffer from uterus perforation or cervical lacerations.
This happens if a fetus stops growing and the body begins to expel such fetus. In this case, there will be induced abortion if a mother takes the decision to end her pregnancy through either the medical or the surgical induction (University of Washington, 2015) The women may take the decision of abortions for medical reasons such as contraceptive failure. This is the most common reason to abortion. There are more than half women choose abortions. Risking death or severe injury may be
: The most frequent and known is hypertension. But maternal malnutrition, infections (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, listeria), changes in blood clotting, etc. can influence. The list of diseases or pathologies in the mother, which can influence the development of the baby, is very extensive. In this sense, my advice is that, if it is your case, make a preconceptional visit and consult your gynecologist.
A congenital anomaly is defined as an abnormality of structure, function or body metabolism that is present at birth and results in physical or mental disability, or is fatal. Differed group of congenital anomalies discovered at different time of pregnancy but most of them are early discovered if the mother is monitoring her pregnancy very early. The choice to terminate the congenital anomalies is another issue because it raises a heated debate regarding a malformed fetus still exists or not and whether it is considered as human being has the right to live or it is merciful for him to end its life. A review of 20 studies found overall termination rates following antenatal diagnosis of congenital malformation, are as follows: Down’s syndrome (92%), Spina bifida (64%), Anencephaly (84%), Turner syndrome (72%), and Klinefelter syndrome (58%). (11) This topic need another paper to discuss about.
In any of these situations, the antibodies will have developed as an immune response which can cause the baby to have anaemia and severe jaundice. With Rh incompatibility, this means whenever the woman is pregnant with an Rh positive baby in the future, antibodies will be produced in higher amounts. ABO incompatibility does not become more serious with each subsequent pregnancy. However ABO incompatibility can affect a baby until all the antibodies pass out of the baby’s system after they are born. What’s the treatment?
One of them is congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In this defect abdominal viscera herniate into thorax via the posterolateral opening in the diaphragm. First CDH used to be fixed by open fetal surgery, during which hysterotomy was done to repair diaphragm directly. However, the techniques to obstruct fetal trachea have developed rather quickly. Nowadays endoluminal approach is applied.
The prenatal diagnostics and prenatal screening being routine procedures should be considered as advantage of modern medicine. It helps to reveal wide spectrum of fetus abnormal conditions, but not only congenital defects and malformations. Early detection of many of them could help to perform surgical correction and necessary management as soon as possible in order to save newborns’ lives. On the other hand, this method is widely discussed and it has many opponents, and in some countries prenatal diagnostic procedures is not considered now as a screening method. Main ethical issues are terminations of pregnancies in case of malformations, which may be supposed as eugenical abortion, inform consent and problem of decision-making process.
The uterine tubes, otherwise called oviducts or fallopian tubes, are the female structures that vehicle the ova from the ovary to the uterus every month. In the vicinity of sperm and treatment, the uterine tubes transport the treated egg to the uterus for implantation.the uterine tubes are uterine limbs spotted reciprocally at the predominant bit of the uterine cavity. These tubes retreat the uterus through a territory alluded to as the cornua, structuring an association between the endometrial and peritoneal cavities. Every uterine tube is roughly 10 cm long and 1 cm in measurement and is arranged inside the mesosalpinx. The mesosalpinx is a fold in the expansive ligament.
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Infertility may be defined as the inability of a married couple to achieve pregnancy over a twelve-month period despite regular frequent unprotected sexual intercourse. Also, it could be the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth (Rowe & Farley, 1988). Infertility has a long history in many cultures. Recent global evidence shows infertility as a major public health problem. Infertility, or the inability to conceive, is a problem of global proportions, affecting between 8 and 12 percent of couples worldwide (Etuk, 2009), In developing countries, one in four ever married women of reproductive age are infertile due to primary or secondary infertility (WHO/DHS, 2004).