The concern of the study is to know the long-term result of MBCT with the use of standardized measures of depressions (BDI-II), mindfulness (MAAS), and rumination (RSS) and the outcomes are collected yearly for 3 years. Thirty-nine participants were observed and the results showed a significant decrease in depression. Although the depression scores for the last year increased, it was still inside the normal range of BDI-II. Rumination and mind attention showed a strong negative correlation which means as rumination increases, the mind attention decreases and vice versa. It was therefore concluded that continued MBCT aids and training can help relapse prevention.
“Individuals with GAD may worry about everyday concerns as a means of avoiding thinking about more distressing topics, primarily related to interpersonal and difficult childhood experiences” (Fisher & Wells, 2011). This research paper will compare and contrast two theoretical models of generalized anxiety disorder
Stigmatization of mental illness existed well before psychiatry became a formal discipline, but was not formally labeled and defined as a societal problem until the publication of Goffman’s book (1963). Mental illnesses are among the most stigmatizing conditions, regardless of the specific psychiatric diagnosis. Unlike other illnesses, mental illness is still considered by some to be a sign of weakness, as well as a source of shame and disgrace. Many psychiatric patients are concerned about how people will view them if knowledge of their condition becomes public Mental health stigma can be divided into two distinct types: • social stigma is characterized by prejudicial attitudes and discriminating behavior directed towards individuals with mental health problems as a result of the psychiatric label they have been given and has those types stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination Stereotypes are based on knowledge available to members of a group and provide a way to categorize information about other groups in society Prejudiced persons agree with these negative stereotypes, and these attitudes lead to discrimination through negative behaviors toward mentally ill individuals those negative perceptions create fear of and social distance from mentally ill persons. • perceived stigma or
Some psychologists have even argued that personality does not exist; that people change behaviour over time and across various situations. The counter-argument to this is that individuals will adapt their behaviour to fit the situation, and generally demonstrate some pare of their personality in a given situation (Coaley, 2014). However, personality is a broad and rather ambiguous concept, meaning that is it difficult to define succinctly; and yet how we define it plays a crucial part in how we investigate it. Eysenck’s theory of personality concluded that there were 3 dimensions: extraverted-introverted, neuroticism-stability, psychoticism-socialisation (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964). With the broadening field of psychometrics, the Eysencks were the first to make their approach more quantifiable and legitimate than others had been in the past.
Other disciplines seem to have assimilated the same definition of chronic confusion as outlined by NANDA. For instance, psychology, defines chronic confusion as an alteration in awareness characterized by a change in cognitive or behavioral clarity (Psychology Definition Staff, n.d.). However, psychology formerly believed chronic confusion was related to psychosis. Psychosis is an abnormal state of mind resulting in a “severe loss of contact with reality” (Taber, 2013). Even though reality orientation may be implemented in patients who experience chronic confusion, the condition is not a psychosis.
Self-efficacy is best explained by Bandura (1995) who says that it "refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations". More simply, self-efficacy is what an individual believes he or she can accomplish using his or her skills under certain circumstances (Snyder & Lopez, 2007). Self-efficacy has been thought to be a task-specific version of self-esteem. The basic principle behind Self-Efficacy Theory is that individuals are more likely to engage in activities for which they have high self-efficacy and less likely to engage in those they do not (Van der Bijl & Shortridge-Baggett, 2002). I think that this research by Snyder & lopez is particularly relevant to Simons case as.
With the given differences, Weber can be closely related to being a ‘Conflict Structuralist’. In Weber’s perspective that his sociological analysis focused as to how people’s relationship influence people’s behavior. Weberian sociology can also be seen as a ‘pluarlist perspective for the reason that his saw societies involving different groups and each possessing or competing for greater or lesser forms of power. A earlier discussed, such groups may be of the class,
Depression is not something we hear little about. Hearing stories about people struggling with depression has become in many ways part of our norm. Those who struggle with depression face the difficulty of not being able to explain their condition and the difficulty of being properly diagnosed. As much as depression is on the rise, there are still many who are unaware that they have depression and go under the radar. Depression is not just a mental issue.
Another factor is the stigma that many cultures attach to mental health issues. In some cultures, being open about mental health struggles can lead to “social isolation and social sanctions” (Chaze, Thomson, George, & Guruge, 2015, p.96) Many immigrants are also used to seeing mental health issues as a weakness and fear not being able to trust anyone with their issues (Chaze et al., 2015, p.96). Low levels of English proficiency and the stigma that is attached to mental health are two of the many causes of low levels of mental health literacy among the immigrant population. Mental health literacy can be defined as “the ability to seek information, learn, appraise, make decisions, communicate information, prevent diseases and promote individual, family and community health” (Simich, 2010, p.17). The Canadian Alliance on Mental Illness and Mental Health, as cited by Simich (2010) “has identified immigrants as a priority group for mental health literacy interventions”