To identifies several thresholds for the global sample with the various income-specific sub-samples and investigate the relationship of nonlinearity. II. To examine the characteristic of country-based macroeconomic which affect the nonlinearity. 1.3 Problem Statement/ Issue The problems on this research will be answer by the following questions: I. Does the negative impact of inflation on economic growth are able to withstand the level of development of an economy?
However, in the long run these will have an effect on unemployment that will rise up and getting even worse. Moreover, most people are unlikely to be happy to accept higher taxes as it reduces disposable income and the level of consumption. A reduction of government spending may result in less people will support the government. Demand side policies will bring down the price level (reduce inflation), but they will result in lower national output and rise in unemployment. Therefore, government could use supply side policies to deal with the unemployment situation such as in interventionist supply-side policies will increase the levels of human capital of an economy by support education and training institutions with subsidies or tax benefits and for market-based supply-side policies will reduce trade union power.
Inflation is one of the major problems in macroeconomics. Generally in theory, inflation is an increase in the overall price level and it is calculated based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Inflation and economic growth are incompatible. Government around the world will take action to minimize the negative impact of inflation to a certain extent when inflation is expected to be happened. Low inflation rate and upward economic growth is impossible in reality (“Inflation and Economic Growth”, 2010).
Could you possibly imagine how this government action would impact the economy as a whole? To understand the ups and downs of the economy it is imperative to understand the connotation of inflation, its harms to the economy, and deflation in the Business Cycle. Inflation is defined as a prolonged increase in the general level of prices, and this has a direct impact on the purchasing power and the economy’s health. It is a result of an economic boom or peak (stimulated by various factors) when aggregate demand rises faster than supply can increase. In Econland, the monetary policy that increased money and credit supplying led to inflation.
.3.3 Inflation Rate The inflation rate used as an indicator in measuring the stability of economic condition for a particular country (Rashid et al., 2011). In financial theory, inflation rate reflected by consumer price index (CPI) represents all the price of goods and services will go up and it need to take more money to buy the same items. Moreover, high inflation is likely cause a great impact on economic activities of a particular country because it reduces the purchasing power of domestic consumers and it would lead to currency value decline. The previous researchers believe that the inflation rate will influence the stock market return. There are many empirical studies establish that the inflation rate has an impact on stock market
This curve became widely used by policymakers to control unemployment and inflation by manipulating the opposite variable. Acknowledging the inverse relationship between inflation and unemployment shown in the Phillips Curve, Phelps agreed that inflation depends on unemployment and vice-versa, but he challenged the curve's theoretical foundation and argued that the government should not use the curve as a basis for policy. He noted that when the government attempts to lower unemployment below its natural rate through expansionary monetary or fiscal policy, demand increases and firms respond by raising prices faster than anticipated by workers. With higher prices, firms receive a higher revenue and are able to hire more workers. When workers see that their wages have risen, they supply more labor, leading to a lower unemployment rate.
On the other hand, those people from rural area will move to the urban area to look for better paying job. However, only those investors or businesses profit while the labor’s wage does not increase due to the existence of surplus labor. Thus, the income gap between the rich/investors and the working class increases and escalates economic inequality. According to Kuznet’s hypothesis, in the long run, when a certain level of average income is reached and the process associated with industrialization such as democratization and development of welfare state, economic inequality decreases (Galbraith 2007). When this happens, the economic benefits will be experience by all social classes and income per capita will further
The first and foremost aim of the Central Bank is to maintain the inflation level to the minimum. The Quantitative Easing policy is differing and very inflationary since it uses money for both lending and keeping as reserves. Nevertheless the economic policy on the other hand states that the effect of inflation will be good when Quantitative Easing is used, when the economy goes down as it will encourage the economy as a whole initially. But it will create problems in the longer run as the effects of such a simulation will be an extreme challenge to deal with when the economy gradually recovers. Secondly, quantitative easing can lead to a fall in the interest rates in the short term and an increase in the rate of inflation in the longer run, hence causing an instability in the financial system as well as an increase in the interest rates, therefore it is essential for the central banks to keep the interest rates
Rising wages are a key cause of cost push inflation because wages are the most significant cost for many firms. (Higher wages may also contribute to rising demand) 2.2.2. Import prices If there is a devaluation then import prices will become more expensive leading to an increase in inflation. A devaluation or depreciation means the rand is worth less, therefore we have to pay more to buy the same imported goods. 2.2.3.
Inflation has adverse effects on an economy. For instance, due to uncertainty of the future, people may decide not to invest and save money. High rates of inflation can also lead to shortage of goods since consumers might start hoarding in fear that the prices might increase further in future. Research conducted by economists’ shows that high rates of inflation are mainly caused by an excessive growth of the money supply and monetary authorities have an obligation to keep inflation rates low. Background Pakistan is one of the countries that currently faces high inflation rates.