The content is just one of the elements that determine the shape or form and are to be evaluated from this perspective.Theway of using language in the formalist point of view is different from using language by other approaches.The artistthat has a common language is trying not to be obsessed with conceptual limitations. The views of formalists are: 1) Departure or deviation from the norm: Formalists believed that standard literary languagedeviates from literary arts. Less text can be found in each paragraph or even a sentencethat somehow escape from the criteria. 2.Exotic and Defamiliarization: An important achievement in the theory of Defamiliarization is pure literature. Art puts obstacles in the way of reader to oblige him to think about the text and art.
The first type is a narrowed phenomenon described under the same name by Kristeva. Intertextuality in Genette 's theory denotes de facto an actual occurrence of one or more texts in another. This may appear very literally, primarily as a traditional citing, with the use of quotation marks (though references are not a must). Another intertextual relation is inglorious yet still extensively practised plagiarism, that is quoting another author 's work without providing proper acknowledgements. Allusion is likewise considered to be a manifestation of intertextual relationships.
But on the other side there still remains the basic fact that without quantitative confirmation, statements on style lack the support of concrete evidence. Statistical analysis, therefore, becomes an essential and important tool in stylistic description. Style therefore consists of the choices that the writer makes from the repertoire of language; it basically falls in the domain of language use; for instance what choices are made by a particular writer in a particular text. In literature it is possible to distinguish between what the writer chooses to talk about and how he chooses to talk about it. The literary communication in literature is done through carefully selected diction.
Literature is incredibly diverse form of art, as it can be expressed in many different ways such as: genre, idea, execution and style of writing. Writing style is an essential part when it comes to the literature as it allows the writers to portray their unique identity through literature. The short explanation of the importance of writing style by Allen Wolfe states that "author’s style is his distinct literary manner that makes his expression of content unique from other authors. Style gives form to substance. An author’s style determines the techniques that he will employ to compose his content."
The speakers of a particular language community are under the power of the language they speak, hence their perception is the product of that particular language. Their thinking and knowledge systems are not permitted to go beyond the limits of that language. As a result, everything existing in a particular language community cannot be translated. Accessing to equivalent words or concepts can therefore become a difficult area for a translator. The elements, exclusive to a particular culture and language come out to be non-existent in a different language, for which a translator has to take recourse in creating ‘new semantic fields’ or ‘super-ordinate’.
Cultural Untranslatability Linguistic Untranslatability: When there is no lexical or syntactical substitute in the TL for an SL item. Linguistically untranslatable sentences are such as involves structures not found in English. By restructuring and adjusting the position to conform to English norms a translator would unhesitatingly render two sentences. Professor Liu Biqing wrote in his Modem Translation Theories that “The structure of language commonly shows the characteristics of the language, these characteristics only can be found in relative language, the similar transfer is difficult to find in non-relative language, for it need to change the code completely.” View from the etymology, English belongs to the Indo-European language, while Chinese belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language, so there exits the linguistic untranslatability, which includes the following aspects: phonology, character, figure of speech, and so on. A. Untranslatability in Phonology: Any language has its own special phonemic system, which cannot be replaced by other language.
These strains have been labeled as ‘Dramatic’. He set a vague for metaphysical conceit and influenced a large number of contemporary poets. The concept of metaphysical conceit is another but most enticing aspect of Donne’s poetry. According to Dr Johnson, “conceits are the most heterogeneous ideas yoked by violence together”. Metaphysical poets are unable to achieve their poetic goals because they do not represent basic human nature and human feelings in their poetry.
CHAPTER TWO TRANSLATION SHIFTS 2.1. Introduction Translation is a complicated process which involves two different languages. Each language has its own linguistic, stylistic, and cultural system which makes it difficult, or impossible, to convey to the target text (TT) the exact features of the source text (ST). Translation shifts, accordingly, is a phenomenon that cannot be avoided. Eugene Nida (1964: 156) illustrates this point stating that: Since no two languages are identical, either in the meanings given to corresponding symbols or in the ways in which such symbols are arranged in phrases and sentences, it stands to reason that there can be no absolute correspondence between languages.
Correctly referencing another authors work will avoid the document from been plagiarised. While using work from other sources it can be worth noting that the work does not have to be copied word for word, another way to present work from other authors is through
Translation of creative literature which finds its most authentic expression in poetry is even more problematic than other genres like novel, prose and short-story. It is because the language of creative literature, especially, that of poetry, has the quality of concretion, vividness and exuberance as opposed to the language of abstraction, generally found in various kinds of informative literature. Poetry incorporates emotional, psychological and imaginative experiences and not simply knowledge and information, and such experiences find voice in figures of speech such as metaphor, simile, images, symbols, etc. On top of that, poetry uses language dialectically not referentially as expressed in features like irony, paradox, conceit, etc. Together, these two things lead to infinite suggestiveness.