However, if body fails to eliminate the remaining acids, these buffers are soon exhausted, and the pH of body fluids quickly decreases to life threatening levels. By eliminating the carbon dioxide, the lungs can rapidly remove large quantities of fixed acid from the blood. The kidneys also remove fixed acids, but at a slow pace33. Bronchial Asthma “Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by chronic airway inflammation and the diagnosis is usually clinical. It is defined by the history of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough that vary over time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory airflow limitation.”34 The following features are typical of asthma and, if present, increase the probability that the patient has asthma:34 • More than one symptom (wheeze, shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness), especially in adults • Symptoms often worse at night or in the early morning • Symptoms vary over time and in intensity • Symptoms are triggered by viral infections (colds), exercise, allergen exposure, changes in weather, laughter, or irritants such as car exhaust fumes, smoke or strong
Another indication of fluid build up would have been to auscultate the lungs for crackles during breath sounds. Increased pressure in the arterioles, means an increased after load for the right ventricle, moreover, causing the right ventricle to dysfunction. The patients history of lung disease means that any pressure in the
COPD is referred to both chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the symptoms of COPD are persistent coughing with mucus, shortness in breath, and tightness in the chest, the treatment for COPD is medication and a change in lifestyle, oxygen therapy . Next emphysema is caused by cigarette smoking and other toxins such as industrial chemicals, in developing countries, the smoke that's caused by cooking or heating can cause emphysema. Even though smoking is a huge contributor to emphysema there are minor risk factors such as, a low body weight, child respiratory disorders, an exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution/smog, and dust(mineral dust, cotton dust), also genetics can a lead cause to emphysema, for instance a close relative of someone with emphysema can or could get the disease themselves. There are three different morphological types of emphysema, centriactinare, panacinar, and paraseptal. Centriacinar emphysema is a form that is connected with long term cigarette smoking and it involves the upper half of a person's lungs, it beings at the respiratory bronchioles and spreads
Because they also encourage mucous secretions, macrophage activity on pneumococci is decreased while bacterial adhesion to the epithelium is increased. Pneumonia is a condition that aggravates the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. Cyanosis occurs as a result of the decrease in gas exchange through the inflamed alveolar membrane and subsequent decline in hemoglobin saturation. One of the most common complications of the flu is a bacterial infection.
The patient’s respiratory pattern is that of Kussmaul breathing. This is the body’s attempt to blow off as much carbon dioxide to compensate for the metabolic acidosis from DKA, seen when the pH is less then 7.20 (McCance & Huether, 2014). The patient will have a fruity odor on his breath due to the keto acid.
What is the specific mechanism responsible for producing this effect (Be specific)? (6 marks) The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is synthesized by neurons located in the hypothalamus and are stored in and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (Silverthorn et al., 2013). The high osmolarity of a dehydrated person is the primary stimulus for the secretion of ADH (Saladin, 2004). This hormone acts on the collecting duct of the nephron (Silverthorn et al., 2013). ADH increases and water reabsorption and decreases osmolarity of renal filtrate (reduces urine output) by two mechanisms.
CO poisoning can cause serious implications such as organ failure, heart damage, and brain damage. Death may occur in cases when your body begins to replace the oxygen in your blood with CO. Treatments will help prevent life-threatening complications. Oxygen Treatment – This treatment helps increase the oxygen levels in the blood and remove the CO from the person’s blood. An oxygen mask is paced over the patient’s nose and mouth then be asked to inhale.
High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as having a systolic reading equal to, or more than 140mmHg and a diastolic reading equal to, or more 90mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by stress, medication (steroids), obesity, diet, alcohol, smoking and hereditary factors. The renal system works with the circulation system to remove waste products and fluid from the body. Blood pressure rises if the volume of blood increases, due to fluid retention in the body or from disease of the kidneys. The effects of hypertension include angina, heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and peripheral arterial disease (poor circulation in the
It is caused by infection, allergen, pollution, exacerbation, exercise and exposure to airway irritants affecting small airways. The irritants inflame the airways causing construction and decrease ventilation. There many ways to manage an asthmatic patient by using Bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory and mechanical ventilation therapy. The benefits of using heliox are to increase oxygenation and open the construction of the airways. Heliox has more efficacies to bass through the small airways to the smaller because of its velocity and low density.
By decreasing atelectasis, this decrease ventilation perfusion gap and increases gas exchange move pulmonary secretions, Increase lung compliance, Manual hyperinflation may be showed in patients demanding mechanical ventilation and self-ventilating tracheostomy patients who have Chest x-ray alter the lung collapse and consolidation or by areas which are less ventilated on auscultation. The capability to monitor patients’ response (Heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturations) is essential. Manual hyperinflation can reduce respiratory drive by decreasing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) this is an significant concern in treatment of subject with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  In monitoring units physiotherapists deal with intubated patients normally with lung collapse, it is seen that furthermost of the patients went for bronchoscopy technique to expand the lung. Pulmonologists are going for bronchoscopy which is very expensive procedure and having risks of bleeding and infection. Complications with the application of Manual hyperinflation technique can arise from the incorrect use of Manual hyperinflation and incorrect patient selection.