Three Types Of Universal Values

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Although it can be a bit hard to clearly determine any universal value, the value itself may have already existed on the contemporary world. There are many types of universal values being defined and recognized in different ways by scholars, politicians or prominent leaders. A book of S.H. Schwartz says universal values relate to three different types of human needs: biological needs, social co-ordination needs, and needs related to the welfare and survival of groups (Schwartz & Bilsky 1987, p.550). Schwartz also raised some examples of types of universal values which include power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security (Schwartz, 1994). Some other universal values…show more content…
One of several reasons is that social justice can be found in almost all types of governments. By common definition, social justice is about assuring the protection of equal access to liberties, rights, and opportunities, as well as taking care of the least advantaged members of society (John Rawls, 1971). According to Rawls, social justice assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation. The relevant institutions often include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labour law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, equal opportunity and equality of outcome. Basing upon this John Rawls’ theory, social justice can be applied in democratic, socialist or communist countries. For instance, in Australia, to achieve social justice, the government has complied multicultural policies which are directed toward eliminating those inequalities deriving from cultural, racial, religious or linguistic difference. They are premised on the belief that all Australians, whatever their ethnic origin, are entitled to genuine equality of treatment and equality of opportunity in all spheres of community life, including equal access to and an equitable share of the resources which governments manage on behalf of the community (Australian Government’s website). In China, the country has recently…show more content…
Normally, when a value is universal, it is a common morality which is recognized by most of people, and at the same time provides many benefits to humankinds and society as a whole. In my own opinion, social justice as a universal value can help bring prosperity for all people within society. With social justice, people, who used to be poor or vulnerable, have opportunities to rebuild their ability toward balancing in life in term of more-wealthy livelihood and happiness in minds. Moreover, it also helps society to maintain security since a just society can abolish conflicts among people. In contrast, if there are large inequalities within societies, then people are easy to create jealousy, violence or crimes which all cause social
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