Introduction and Experimental Objectives The aim of this experiment was to understand the function and formation of biofilms in bacteria and explore their role while infection occurs in the host. Biofilms have become more prevalent in hospitals and adhere to instruments used in medical procedures and even dry objects in hospitals, for example hospital curtains. The bacteria that form these biofilms can be dangerous to humans, for example Staphylococcus aureus, a methicillin-resistant bacteria.  Biofilms are a group of microbial cells that are surrounded by a polymeric matrix including proteoglycans, peptidoglycans and polysaccharides located outside the cell that can allow the growth of the pathogens to slow down, allow them to attach to surfaces, defend them from the immune system and enable the nutrition of the pathogen. In this experiment, to stain the biofilm, Crystal Violet was used as biofilms contain peptidoglycans in their matrix.
[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.] The Nature and Importance of Pseudonomas Micro-organisms have come to be of great significance to us human beings. Their uses are plentiful and diverse but a few of the most common applications of these genera are in food production, medicinal research, health, ecology and biotechnology. In this essay I will be talking about the genus pseudomonas in particular. The basic few things to know about the pseudomonas bacteria is that it falls under the class of proteobacterias, belongs to the family of Pseudomonadaceae and is a Gram negative bacteria.
The testing for affectability of a life form to antimicrobial agent is normally done utilizing agar dissemination or disk diffusion test. The parameters of this test were indicated (or institutionalized) by the researchers W. M. M. Kirby and A. W. Bauer and is likewise alluded to as the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic testing. In this technique, anti-toxins or antibiotic are impregnated on a specific extraordinary kind of paper circles and are put on the surface of agar containing the bacterium and parasitic (fungi) of our interest. This outcomes in the dispersion of antimicrobial agent into the surrounding medium. The diameter of the zone of inhibition will decide the adequacy or sensitivity of the antibiotic; the bigger the diameter, the more
The attachment of E.coli on the surfaces of epithelial cells pertaining to urinary tract is achieved throughout several bacterial adhesive proteins. In parallel with biofilm formation of pathogenic E.coli on animate and inanimate surfaces, the secretion of exopolysaccharide occurs. The most important VFs which are found in UPEC strains are recognized as capsule, fimbriae, pili, flagella, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hemolysins, siderophores and toxins. These factors mediate colonization and invasion of the UPEC in diverse positions (9, 12,
Then smear the dipped cotton tipped applicator onto the surface that you want to collect a culture from c. Gently roll the cotton tipped applicator into the gel appropriately labeled quarter of the petri dish. d. Throw the used cotton tipped applicator away e. Repeat a – d with three other surfaces. 7. Take a piece of parafilm and secure the side of the petri dish 8. Store the petri dish in the incubator Data: Day 1 Dish was spotted with slight growth of bacteria.
However, ceftazidime-avibactam resistance have been demonstrated from KPC-2 variants such as KPC-3 producer Enterobacteriacae including K.pneumoniae and E.cloacae(67-69). Among β-lactamases, KPC-2 slowly hydrolyze avibactam(57, 68). Ceftazidime-avibactam has no activity against MBLs but because monobactams are not hydrolyzed by MBLs, aztreonam-avibactam combination is effective in vitro against MBL-producing Enterobacteriacae, especially NDM-producers that coproduce ESBLs or AmpC enzymes (56,
Our independent variable in this experiment was the change in concentration, so my hypothesis of the lower the concentration will have the lowest absorbance due to less molecules was right. We did the experiment correctly, since we wiped off our finger prints and set the machine to zero. In all the tubes apart from the one marked “B” we added protein which was the substance being determined, so “B” was our blank used to calibrate the machine. It contained everything apart from the solution that was absorbing
What causes cellulitis? Cellulitis is caused by bacterial infection of the skin. The microorganisms are usually of the gram positive variety such as staphylococcus and streptococcus species. These bacteria normally colonize our skin without causing infection – however, bacteria can enter tissue when there is an opening in the skin (eg, cut, scrape). The bacteria can then proliferate in the wound and spread into the surround skin – this causes the cardinal signs of inflammation – warmth (calor), redness (rubor), pain (dolor), and swelling (tumor).
The development of resistance to all kinds of antibiotics in the sensitive bacterial pathogens is a major challenge to infectious disease medicine. The astonishing effects of antibiotics and origin of the genes associated with resistance has been a long mystery. There is growing evidence that the genes that make up this environmental resistome have the potential to be transformed to pathogens and indeed there is some evidence that clinically relevant resistance genes have originated in environmental microbes. Understanding the extent of environmental resistome and its mobilization into pathogenic bacteria is essential for the management and discovery of antibiotics. INTRODUCTION Antibiotics are organic substances produced by microorganisms, capable of inhibiting the growth or destroying another microorganism at low concentrations .
Oftenly, both on and in man’s body, bacteria which have the ability to cause an infection are present. This ability of pathogenic bacteria to establish disease is reflected in possession of certain pathogenicity factors: toxins, surface structures and enzymes. These established complex relations’ income depends on host’s characteristics as well as on pathogen’s characteristics. ( Olgica Stefanović, Ivana Radojević, Sava Vasić
The unknown bacteria was then tested on multiple selective and differential media. Growth was present on the MacConkey Agar and the colonies were the same color as the plate, which told me my bacteria was gram negative and did not ferment lactose. There was no growth on the Mannitol Salt Agar, and this told me the unknown was not salt tolerant and did not
In the laboratory, identification of an unknown bacterium is often necessary. In the lab, a random sample consisting of three different bacteria was selected. The sample contained one gram-positive, one gram-negative paracolon, and one gram-negative coliform. The purpose of the experiment is to identify each of the three species that the mixture contained. After receiving an unknown mixture, the sample was streaked for isolation onto TSA, blood agar, and MacConkey plates.
sides. Every type of bacteria has a different morphology, it is important to distinguish it to aide in identifying bacteria. The last test that should be performed after reviewing the results of the streak plate is the Catalase test. This test is used to see if the bacteria produces catalase, which is an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into H20 and O2. If this test is positive, the hydrogen peroxide which is dropped onto the colonies in the streak plate will begin to bubble.
We got negative for indole (no production of indole, pyruvic acid and ammonia), negative for Methyl Red (our bacteria does not perform mixed-acid fermentation when supplied glucose), negative for Voges-Proskauer (no fermentation of glucose in order to produce 2,3-Butanediol-Butanediol fermentation), but positive for Citrate utilization, which means our bacteria uses citrate as a sole carbon source and energy. Something interesting here is that according to the lab textbook organism that degrade citrate must also use ammonium salts, and in the process, they produce ammonia that causes the medium to become alkaline (under this condition the medium turns to deep Prussian blue, indicating the utilization of citrate). The genus Alcaligenes is well known for being alkali-producing
Unknown #10 produced no identifiable macroscopic characteristics as a broth, so the first step was to Gram stain a loopful to determine the microscopic characteristics. Gram staining not only helped identify Unknown #10’s microscopic morphology but it also helped ensure the specimen was a pure culture—no other bacteria were visible when Unknown #10 was Gram stained and observed under the microscope. Unknown #10’s key microscopic morphology was that it was a very small, Gram negative bacillus. Though bacilli can possibly form endospores, no empty white centers were visible which suggested that Unknown #10 was not an endospore forming bacteria. No quick endospore stain was performed to validate this assumption since only one assigned organism was endospore forming and unlike Unknown #10, that organism was Gram positive.