After receiving an unknown mixture, the sample was streaked for isolation onto TSA, blood agar, and MacConkey plates. Each plate serves as a first step to identify the unknowns. The TSA (tryptic soy agar) can be used to do a gram stain, which differentiates gram-negatives from gram-positives, based on the structural make up of the cell wall (Carson, 2015). The blood agar plate is used to test for hemolytic activity, which is useful for distinguishing gram-positives. A MacConkey plate is selective by inhibiting the growth of gram-positives and differential due to the fermentation of lactose by certain gram-negative species.
As well as being able to successfully grow and reproduce, the E. coli in the LB/amp/ara +pGLO plate also emitted a fluorescent glow when exposed to UV light. This can be explained by the examining the medium in which they were grown in. The bacteria were transformed with the pGLO plasmid which contained the GFP and resulted in glowing bacteria, however, in order for this to occur the arabinose C sugar must be present in the medium. This sugar is responsible for the activation of the GFP6. Recall that in the E. coli cells in LB/amp +pGLO plate were also transformed but did not express the fluorescent glow.
sides. Every type of bacteria has a different morphology, it is important to distinguish it to aide in identifying bacteria. The last test that should be performed after reviewing the results of the streak plate is the Catalase test. This test is used to see if the bacteria produces catalase, which is an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into H20 and O2. If this test is positive, the hydrogen peroxide which is dropped onto the colonies in the streak plate will begin to bubble.
The iodine test determines the presence of starch in biological materials. It is predicted that, if starch is not present, the solution with iodine remains yellow. However, if starch is present the solution with iodine becomes a blue-black colour. Plants have starch as the storage polysaccharide (glucose units held together by glycosidic bonds) while animals have the equivalent of glycogen. In this experiment, the dark blue colour is visible because of the helical amylose and amylopectin reacting with iodine (Travers et al., 2002).
You Must use Turnitin to submit the exam. Water and Sewage Microbiology: 1. List the steps of in a water purification plant. a. Screening to separate the large contaminants from the water b. Coagulation to attract small contaminants c. Sedimentation where water sits and finishes coagulation d. Filtration to remove any small remaining contaminants and particles e. Disinfection by disinfecting chemicals such as chlorine to kill microorganism or remaining bacteria 2.
Gram-negative bacteria contain a layer of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) When the bacteria enters the body, the LPS triggers the body’s immune response. The body recognises a cytokine reaction from the bacteria which is toxic to the body and responds by inflaming the tissues and blood vessels. The certain cells used against the bacteria Bordetella Pertussis include innate and specific defenses, but the defensive antigens have not been exclusively identified. Explain how the disease can be treated. Pertussis is generally treated with antibiotics and it is vital to use the antibiotics early on in the infection or it will have little to no effect.
Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to identify the composition of over-the-counter analgesics by the method of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The TLC method is used for rapid qualitative analysis of mixtures to determine and identify its components and purity. A development solvent was used to separate the analgesics found in both the known drug sample and an unknown sample of over-the-counter medications. The pertinent techniques for this experiment are spotting the stationary phase with the samples, placement of stationary sample in mobile phase chamber for development, observation under a UV light, and further development in iodine chamber. Experimental Scheme Figure 1 Figure 2 Anacin Salicylamide Procedure 12 micropipettes were prepared in lab by heating the middle of capillary tubes over a flame.
Both ethanol and acetic acid possess antimicrobial properties and thereby act against pathogenic bacteria and prevents contamination of the tea fungus (Liu et al., 1996). The glucose is polymerized by bacteria and produces cellulose and hemi- cellulose (Greenwalt et al.,
Antibiotics are widely used throughout the world for agricultural, industrial, and medical purposes. The primary concern for the use of microbes is its growing resistance to common antibiotics released within the environment. Antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) have been prevalent in aquatic environments such as the public drinking water treatment system, source water, and tap water and multiple researchers have conducted tests to observe the effectiveness of the water treatment plants in the removal of harmful contaminants. While a This review aims to discuss the antibiotic resistance crisis in order to find solutions to combat the main source of selection pressure that causes antibiotic resistance to occur. Mutations provide a source for bacteria to become resistant within the environment.
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.