Organizational Stress and Leadership Organizations experience change constantly whether they planned for it or not. According to Tavakoli (2010), stress and resistance are not inevitable reactions to organizational change. Rather, what makes organizational change stressful or susceptible to the resistance of employees is the way people are treated during the implementation of the change. There are some situations where the change is forced, for example when a market shifts due to political agendas and the organization’s services or products are no longer desirable. This type of organizational change can cause companies to downsize and/or lay-off employees to cut costs (Lussier & Achua, 2015) which causes leadership and employees tremendous stress.
As the Pakistani organizations are becoming competitive in global market and employees are facing stress and conflict between their work and life roles is taking place just like any other person around the world. If there are too many negative work life conflicts between employees and the management, it is very dangerous for long-term performance of the employees Beauregard & Henry (2009) .The aspect of the work life conflict which is not much researched is the gender role orientation. This refers to the stereotypes that the individuals hold about roles of men and women in fulfilling the family and work responsibilities. The gender role orientation is ranging from typical gender role orientation where there are separate roles of men and women. The modern gender role orientation is the sharing of roles between men and women.
Workplace stress and mental health are two commonly related issues. The definition of this topic is, according to (Buckley, 2016) as a harmful reaction that people have to undue pressures and demands placed on them at work. Stress in the workplace is quite common nowadays due to the loads that employer put on their worker, when the world is changing globally and competitions are getting bigger, employers usually first will force their workers to put in more effort in their jobs than rather to bring in more employees. Besides excessive workloads, the working environment can also results in workplace stress. For example bullying, sexual harassment, bad communication between staff and a lot more that can induce stress to the workers.
Conflict is a manifestation of stress due to competing role demands, conflict is considered a bi-directional construct, in that work can interfere with family (i.e., work-to-family conflict and family can interfere with work. Work Family Conflict (WFC) takes place when the demands of work come in conflict with the time / attention given to family. Workplace characteristics like the number of hours worked per week, the amount and frequency of overtime required, an inflexible work schedule, unsupportive supervisor, and an inhospitable organizational culture create conflict between the work and family role. Family-work conflict (FWC) is also a type of inter-role conflict in which family and work responsibilities are not compatible. 1.8.6 Types of Work Life Conflict Three types of conflict have been identified in literature: time-based, strain-based, and behaviour based (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985).
Aggression has become an obstacle at work place now a days. Due to aggression the employers face many problems to achieve their goals. In this research the entire 3 group’s profession is public dealing and all groups become frustrated due to their type of work. At work place aggression is increased due to some personal or psychological issues. Aggression is also known as the social behavior which is distinguished with anti social behavior and pro social behavior.
According to the literature various factors facilitate conflict in organizations. Some of these factors include differences in attitudes, values, skills and behaviours, trust, communication, behaviour and relationship structure, competition for resources, coordination of systems, work distribution, and participation in decision making. All of these factors among others can lead to conflict in the workplace (Trudel, 2009). Given the importance of conflict in organizations it has been reported that managing conflict is considered crucial to ensure the long term viability and success for a business (Ozdemir et al, 2009). It has been further suggested that ignoring or suppressing conflict may result in distrust and defensiveness as well as negative effects on group self-improvement and productivity (Robbins, 2001).
Deviant behavior is basically the response of the employees towards the situation at the organization. This response will be in positive or negative form. Positive form includes employees will work hard for the organization and negative response includes employees lame excuses, back biting, sue side, absentees etc. Different research is done by many researchers on this behavior of employees and they gave different definitions. Heritage, (2000) Defined deviate as “to depart, as from a norm, purpose, or subject,” whereas deviant (noun) is “one that differs from a norm, especially a person whose behavior and attitudes differ from accepted social
The issues have been heatedly debated most of time within an organization due to the extended consequences upon personal implication and organizational reputation, and even development needs of it. To a practicing manager in the working world today, this becomes critically vital, especially if they don’t get it, either have not or still do not. There are several determinants in classifying an ethical problem, namely, the grey world, intense feelings and exponential development. All of these are relatively common and inter-related in terms of ethical conflict. To say, an issue igniting the grey world determines the unclear boundaries between right and wrong will then cause intense feelings in certain parties upon it.
Most managers follow autocratic approaches in the workplace which prevent employees from enjoying their work and life out of work. These managers and working conditions created by them are mostly aimed at the wellbeing of the organization alone. Needs of employees are quite often overlooked and employees feel that they are not supported because of over emphasis to organization which can affect employee’s attitudes and their satisfaction towards their job with overall impact on their performance (http://www.idpublications.org/wp).
For instance even when they attend an interview session, the questions that are asked is discriminated by the employers. The discrimination that is carried out by the employer can lead to go against to protect human right as well. A study had shown that many of those who are already in the workforce are facing discrimination in all their lives (Korff, 2015). It happens very often in the workplace till the individuals actually get prone to the discrimination until they stop to react because they are to use to the behavior of the employers gives them. In the long term, eventually there are occurrences of unfair labor practices in the workplace.