The main causes of air pollution are the smoke from power plants, motor vehicles, wildfire and fumes from paint and spray. According to Holman (1999), some pollutants are emitted directly into the atmospheres which are primary and others are formed in the air as a result of chemical reactions with other pollutants and atmospheric gases which are secondary pollutants. Carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide are examples of primary pollutants, while ozone is an example of a secondary pollutant (Holman 1999). Some pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and some particulate matter, are both primary and secondary pollutants. They are both emitted directly into the atmosphere, and formed from other (Holman,
The wind mixed and vanished the hazardous gases, rain splashed and cleansed the dust and other substances that dissolved to the ground. With the increase of urbanization, the release of waste into the atmosphere by humans increased wildly. And nature couldn’t cope with that. (1) http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/air/aq4kids/pollution.asp Causes of air quality (air pollution) Polluted air is defined as any substance in the air can cause harm to humans and the environment. It is possible that these
(Fertner, Jorgensen, Nielsen & Nilsson, 2016). In recent years, policy makers are challenged by the impacts of Urban Sprawl on the community and environment. The growth of cities and metropolitans is encroaching over the natural landscape in an environmentally and aesthetically undesirable manner (Brueckner & Helsley, 2011). According to Brueckner and Helsley (2011), in response to the challenges and
Air pollution is destroying the environment and the human health. Pollution is when a new substance is introduced to the environment and has negative effects on it. Pollution is found in different forms which include: air, soil, water, radioactive, noise, heat/thermal and light. Air pollution is many times produced by the excessive burning of fuels such as cooking, driving and other industrial activities, which produce chemicals and other substances that pollute the air. Sulphur dioxide that makes air toxic is produced by the burning of coal in everyday normal activities that make the smoke produced by factories, cars and of burning wood.
However, anthropogenic aerosols, arising primarily from a variety of combustion sources, can dominate in, and downwind of, highly populated and industrialized regions and over areas of intense biomass burning. Atmospheric aerosols might affect the global climatic system in many ways, that is, by attenuating the solar radiation reaching the ground, by modifying the solar spectrum, by re-distributing the earth-atmosphere energy budget and by influencing cloud microphysics and even the hydrological cycle (IPCC, 2007). Although the optical properties of aerosols are well known, large uncertainties still occur about aerosol-climate interaction due to the variety of aerosol types, their changing optical and physico-chemical properties, the influence of dynamic and synoptic scale meteorology and the mixing (internal and external) processes in the
In addition to these urban activities, different factors are significant contributors to reduce of urban air quality such as the reliance on fossil fuels in warming, industrial activities and traffic; dependence on the private automobiles; inefficient use of energy in buildings and public transportation; the use of incorrect and incomplete combustion techniques; the degradation of open and green areas, etc. (Grsic et al., 2014, Dimitrovski et al., 2015, Bouhouras and Basbas, 2015). Air pollution in urban areas affects not only urban air quality, also quality of life, and public health directly (Deak et al., 2015), and these circumstances lead to shift in planning decisions. Urban planning focuses on the use of land and design of the
Countries all over the world are facing the problems of a high urban sprawl, the phenomenon that urban spatial patterns changes into large outward expansions of low density areas (Burchell et al, 2000). Urban sprawl has serious consequences to a good quality of live in the whole city. For instance the average journey time from work to shopping- or residential areas becomes larger because of the urban sprawl. This also leads to other side-effects as pollution and accidents, problems with the facilitation of public transportation in low density areas and many, many more. This negatively effects the quality of life, especially in US-city’s where this problem often occurs.
This term is closely related to the noise because this is when the noise is considered a contaminant. Transportation, building construction and public works, industry, etc. are examples of factors that contribute to this pollution. 3.2 INTRODUCTION For years the noise has become a pollutant factor that affects people, but now is a serious problem with physiological, psychological, economic and social effects. Noise has existed since ancient times, but from the past century the problem of urban noise begins to appear, as a result of the Industrial Revolution, the development of new means of transport and the growth of cities.
Hence, they are considered to be one of the most effective traffic calming measures and are used everywhere in the world. Speed Humps and Pedestrian Safety One of the greatest benefits of installing speed humps in residential areas is the increased safety that it provides to the pedestrians. As the major accidents occur due to the vehicles exceeding the speed limit, installation of speed humps helps to ensure that drivers abide by the speed limits. This will indirectly help the pedestrians to walk safely without worrying about the speeding vehicles on the road. Speed Humps - An Effective Traffic Calming Tool Installing speed humps are way too effective and have great benefits in traffic calming as a whole.
(Mohammad, 2011) In Malaysia, Klang Valley is one of the leading economic zones. It consists of Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, and neighboring cities and towns in the State of Selangor, such as Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam, Klang, Sepang, Gombak and Hulu Langat, which has almost 3.98 million populations as of the year 2000. During the last decade of the twentieth century, the rapid transformation of the Klang Valley into a wide urban region and has contributed to many of the environmental issues, particularly air pollution. Air pollution can be caused by several sources, such as from the factories, power plants, dry