The agriculture sector in Ethiopia plays pivotal roles in economic growth, poverty alleviation, employment creation, foreign exchange earnings and food security. Despite the enormous contribution over the past years, its significance is limited because of various factors and hence it is becoming increasingly difficult to meet the food requirements of the growing population (Jon, 2007; Abera, 2011; UNDP, 2013). One of the significant contributors for its deprived performance is the low productivity of the sector in general and cereal production in particular over the past years (Alemayehu, 2009; Alemayehu et al. 2012). Such low productivity leads to increasing poverty and food insecurity of rural poor farm households in the country.
5.3.2. Shell’s Crisis Shell SPDC as it’s called in Nigeria is the most controversial in the Niger Delta region and internationally too. There have been debates and its often questioning the existence of the corporation is conflict-affected regions. One of the most documented criticisms towards the company concerns their existence in the Delta region of Nigeria. Since the late 1950, Shell have been accused of making huge profits from oil exploration and doing little for their host communities in the Niger Delta in return , thus this situation precipitated crisis that threatened peace and stability in the Niger Delta region and Nigeria as whole.
Such consequences for the rural-urban migration are over population of public space and an increased level of corruption. According to the analysis by the Federal office of statistics in Nigeria report indicates that poverty has been in existence since the evolution of Nigeria as a country, the poverty level was at 27% in 1980 and rose up to 46 percent by 1985. After a moderate drop in 1992 to 43%, poverty escalated to 66% in 1996 (Osagie, 2007). Some factors were responsible for the increment in the poverty level in Nigeria such as deserting agriculture for petroleum economy, the mismanagement of the country’s resources by corrupt government officials and prolonged military dictatorship in the country (Igbuzor, 2006). Poverty is pervading throughout the country, while poverty
The rural sector was not immune from the government’s blend of mismanagement and corruption, which aggravated the problem of the decline in the agricultural sector. Thus, due to various reasons like stated above Nigeria, an oil dependent country has been highly vulnerable to fluctuations in oil price and as failed to move the economy on a path of sustained development. Furthermore, oil abundance has generally not improved the circumstances but rather has led to negative externalities due to increased pollution of rivers and agricultural land. These factors have led to a desire by certain groups (such as MEND) to gain a greater share of the oil wealth which has resulted in civil and political conflict as well as vandalism of oil infrastructure, which has further increased environmental problems. Therefore, it is important for Nigeria to focus on its endowment of gas resources,
Tsegay (2009), identified low and variable rainfall, traditional farming practices, inaccessibility to productive resources (rural credit), diminishing land holdings and other factors as the causes of food insecurity in Ethiopia. Another study by Meskerem (2011) on household food insecurity in Girar Jarso, one of the Woredas of the Oromia regional state, reveals that shortage of farmland, land fragmentation, overgrazing, soil erosion, high level of age dependency and poor fallowing practice are some of the responsible factors for the lowering of agricultural productivity that in turn leads to the state of food insecurity in the study
Global food security problem Global environmental changes have resulted in many problems like air and water pollution, environmental disasters, global warming and food security is one of these problems. The number and proportion of hungry people in the world are in decline with the recovery in the global economy and the survival food prices, but the hunger rate is still higher than it was before the crisis rising food prices and the economic crisis. Over the time these causes of food security issue are aggravating and growing which makes the need for speed avoided and resolved. This essay will discuss the global food security issue that emerged due to the population explosion, climate changes, agriculture problems, and lack of awareness of
Development is the primary goal of every well meaning government, and it is essentially dependent on the level of economic activities in a country. The level of economic activities is in turn enhanced by peaceful coexistence by the people. But Nigeria in the last fifty-five (55) years has been battling with the problems of development in spite of the huge human, material and natural resources in her possession, as a result of conflicts in the country. Boroface (2008) claimed that “conflict generally occurs when two or more people, communities or nations oppose one another as a
In Sub–Saharan Africa for example, agriculture employs over 65% of the total labour force and generates about 32% of growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (World Bank, 2007). Impaired human health and nutrition lowers both agricultural outcome and human capital accumulation by adding vulnerability to disease which then leads to decline in agricultural output (WHO, 2010b). Improving farming households’ nutrition and health is an end in itself thereby making it a fundamental goal of economic development. The problem posed by poverty and low agricultural output of farmers in Sub-Saharan countries in spite of their generous natural resource endowments has consistently continue to baffle agricultural policy
Though there are signs Africa on the rise and sort of recognition (S. Amin1996 P. 200). The realism in the underdevelopment countries has a common indicator that is basically traditional society; agriculture dominated economy, low level of usage in science and technology and little saving and investment. Imaginably they lack socioeconomic construct and a sustainable economic growth and development. Beyond that, the real causes are the lack of diligent leadership, strong institutional framework, technological transformation and delusional ideology that are far from the societal need (Rostow, W.W. 1960). A combination of all these factors causes Africa to be seated not only on the periphery but also periphery of the periphery.
Additionally,floods can be local,impacting a neighbourhood or community,or very large,affecting entire river basins. Mozambique, officially known as the Republic of Mozambique is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world although rich in natural resources. Its economy is largely based on agriculture, but its industry and other sectors are gradually developing. It has two topographical regions divided by the Zambezi river, and two seasons the wet (October- March) and dry (April- September). These conditions however depend on the altitude.