With the increase of population the number of vehicles in the urban areas will also increase, but if the land area won’t get expand it will lead to traffic congestion. This is a huge negative impact on the country’s economy. The main negative impact from traffic congestion is the wastage of fuel, energy. Other than that; wastage of time, difficulties in parking, less efficiency and effectiveness are some negative impacts of traffic congestions. • HIGH MAINTANANCE COST To meet the higher urbanization and higher population new infrastructure has to be provided and as well as has to upgrade the current
There are many reasons for the rapid increase in rural-urban migration. One of them is that these migrants hope to achieve better job opportunities and a better lifestyle. Lack of facilities, opportunities for a better lifestyle and agricultural losses have caused many people to migrate from rural to urban areas. However, this unplanned, rapid urbanisation has led to urban poverty because of lack of proper housing facilities, sanitation and health issues. Hence, steps need to be taken to ensure that this urbanisation does not lead to an increase in urban poverty.
Environmental decay in a city is essentially caused by rapid urbanization and the mismatch in the provision and maintenance of housing and infrastructure. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heat waves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change (Agrawal 2014) . The huge rise in numbers of urban dwellers has contributed to the growth of slums; characterized by overcrowding, poor housing, a lack of safe water and sanitation, low incomes, and physical and legal insecurity (Cronin 2012) . The slums, due to lack of basic infrastructure, also cause severe impacts on the environment, even the smaller ones,
from having a large number of people living , working and traveling within particular area to the uncontrolled building practices which resulted to pollution, sanitation, traffic, unemployment, violence , crime and the mass use of cars which helped in increasing the CO2 emissions in air (Dayana,2014). All the problems above left a huge impact on urban health whether in increasing the number of diseases , bad infrastructure, global warming, noise, lack of open spaces , bad ventilation and illumination, poor health services and living conditions (Dayana,2014). People are heading towards living in urbanized area, in other words are heading to the cities, Where 61% of humanity will be living in cities by the year 2025. We should keep in mind that cities are not static but rather dynamic; they are breathing entities that are unlimitedly expanding, so it is like a two-edged sword. It is a complex for health services and a place where the good services are, but on the other side in some cases it is the emergence of deadly diseases ) G.Rodwin, 2001) .
However, an ultimate consequence of urbanisation appears as an increase in population. There may be many reasons for the population explosion but the declining land productivity, rising expectations for higher wages, and a search for better living conditions are the prominent motivations for migration from less developed areas towards developed areas. In case of Pakistan census records show that the rate of urban population increase has risen from 17.7 percent in 1951 to 32.5 percent in 1998. Karachi, the most populated city of Pakistan has sufficient worth to be considered as a case study because of two reasons. Firstly, large spatial expansion and enormous increase in population in a short span of time, secondly, the bizarre appearance of Katchi Abadies (temporary settlements) and their amalgamation in the urban
Every year, hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children die around the world and India alone is responsible for 25% of the deaths. By 1980, slum-dwellers were half of India’s entire population. (SOURCE: CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 - CIRCULAR No. 8) Slum-dwellers constantly deal with issues such as: lack of clean water, constant migration at slums, no sewage or waste disposal facilities, pollution, and unsanitary living conditions.High levels of pollution, lack of basic needs, and room-crowding are some of the basic characteristics of slum housing.The Government of India has not been able to solve the problems that are strangling the entire population of Indian
With high unemployment rates, the expansion of informal settlements and the neglect of basic human rights, one of India’s megacities, Mumbai, is a good representation of these social divisions. Incorporating analysis’s from material provide in the Development and the City course at the University of Guelph, it is believed that a significant issues is the means to which governments invests in their people. Within cities, municipal governments are often more interested in modernizing than addressing the major structural concerns mentioned above. Furthermore, social inequalities do not just expand across cities, rather this is a problem that engulf the entire nation, which Boo also points to. This can especially be seen when
Provisional data relating to slums in the 2001 Census throw some light on the slum population. Nearly 28 million persons lived in the slums in 1981, accounting for 17.5 per cent of the urban population. The estimates for 1991 were 45.7 million slum dwellers accounting for 21.5 per cent of population. According to the 2001 Census, there are 40.6 million persons living in slums in 607 towns/cities, and they account for 22.8 per cent of the population of these cities (Planning Commission 2002). The health and environmental implications of households’ lack of access to potable water, sanitation facilities, adequate drainage, and proper solid waste collection and disposal services are overwhelming, especially for women and children who spend proportionally more time at home than men.
The haphazard growth had an inverse effect in the communities. When the heavy rainfall takes places, inundation occurs in the low-lying areas and the drainage system did not have the capacity to drain the run off quickly to prevent floods. It affects the whole city life badly. Table 3: Increasing Trend of population size in Hyderabad
There exist bigger distinction in income levels, social status, employment, welfare and other indicators of development. This marginalization process is a serious issue associated with the rise of cities. Especially in a country like India, this scenario is very common and is overlooked by the authorities. When we address the issues pertaining to cities and settlement, slums are an important sector to talk about. A larger gap exists between authorities and policymakers in formulating