For example, the rapid rise in the price of homes clearly made homeownership more difficult for many renters, but it also greatly reduced the financial costs of homeownership to a much larger group of existing homeowners by providing substantial capital gains. Among renters, the large share of income devoted to housing surely reflects voluntary consumption choices for many households and the consumption of a publicly determined minimum quality and quantity of housing for others. To the extent that the latter group of households would choose a lower quality of housing, given their opportunities, one might conclude that the incomes of the poorest households are insufficient to afford the socially imposed minimum
My topic which is the urban poor and their unsure uniqueness basically it relates that in this modern world the concept of urbanization is increasing day by day. It is accepted to be a one good step but finishing the rural area and converting it to an urban area is increasing the rate of people being urban poor. The urban growth is attributed to both natural population growth, and rural to urban migration. Urbanization contributes to constant economic growth which is serious to poverty reduction. The economies of scale and collection in cities attract investors and entrepreneurs which is good for overall economic development.
Demographic dividend and Urbanization in third world countries Abstract: A study between the demographic dividend and urbanization in third world countries is quite important to understand. Urbanization is the process in which the rural population shifts to the urban areas in search of better opportunities and more and more places take characteristics of a city. The paper talks about how urbanization affects a country's economy. The Demographic dividend phase of the demographic transition model has been explained in detail. The age structure, the population growth , the problems and the benefits have been analyzed.
Moreover, the benefits of urbanization are not equally enjoyed by all segments of the population. According to UN State of the World Population 2014 report, the majority of people worldwide will be living in cities for the first time in history recording due to referred as the arrival ‘’ tipping point’’. In 2014, the level of urbanization significantly different across the countries because of high levels of urbanization at 80%, categorized Latin America and Caribbean and North America. Europe, with 73% of its population living in urban areas is predictable to be over 80% urban by 2050. Africa and Asia remain mostly rural with 40% and 48% of their respective population living in urban areas (UN, 2014).
By interpreting the strong arguments supported for the effects of self-esteem on life satisfaction, one can conclude self-esteem as an important component of psychological health leading to their outlook on life. It is hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of self-esteem will express higher levels of overall satisfaction with life, indicating a positive correlation between self-esteem and satisfaction with life. This study will add to the current literature by broadly examining the correlation between the self-esteem and life satisfaction in undergraduate
At the moment, most of the developing world is becoming urban, which is called urbanization. The statistics showed that urban population in the world would almost double from 3.3 billion in 2007 to 6.3 billion in 2050. With the rapid development of the developing countries, there has an increasing interest in the study of urbanization. On the one hand, urbanization promotes the economic growth of the developing countries. On the other hand, it caused many environmental and healthy problems.
Study conducted by Wodon (1999) in Bangladesh by using five cross sectional surveys in Bangladesh in the 1983-1996 periods. By compiling panel data of consumption, poverty and inequality rates for fourteen areas (regional level) with data from five years, this study is able to estimate there is an impact of growth on inequality. The result is significantly different between urban and rural areas. Poverty declined greatly for the past years, particularly in urban areas. On the other hand inequality also rises, so that the benefit from growth for the poor people can’t be obtained as great as if there is a stable distribution.
Firstly, the phenomenon of rapid urbanization is more common amongst developing countries than others, because by default the less the income of an individual the more they would want to increase it by moving to urban areas and taking part in the industrialization process to raise their average annual income. Secondly, urbanization is considered as part of a larger economic development process. Sometimes urbanization can be a huge aid to economic development and speed up the process, and in other times it can impede it and cause a country’s economy to deteriorate. For instance, according to the International Monetary Fund; in the following figure we’ll find that in rural areas poverty is evidently higher than in urban areas although the cost of living in urban cities is much higher.
They are the production approach, the income approach, or the expenditure approach. In this research, the way of estimating GDP is by using the second approach- income approach. In this approach, an economist believes that the money each family brings home is a better way to evaluate the economic strength of the country. Therefore, this method will measure the annual incomes of all individuals in a country. GDP calculated in this way is sometimes called as gross domestic incomes (GDI).
2.2 Opportunities (advantages) associated with real estate Companies and citizens consider real estate as one important financial asset. One good reason for the entry and increasing popularity of real estate in an investor’s portfolio is the observed protection from inflation. In order to show the advantages of investors in real estate, it is important to compare real estate to stocks or bonds. In case of stocks the real returns have a negative response to inflation in a short-term period as well as in long-term period. This idea can be explained by considering two scenarios.