Urban Migration In India

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A commonly known perception is that explosive rural to urban migration is the main cause of the condition of Indian cities. For the last 30 years, 1/5th of Indian population migrated in search of better living and opportunities. Due to this, natural urban population witnessed a growth of 60%.
This section estimates patterns of migration in India based on Census-2011 data. Besides exploring the contribution of net rural to urban migration to the total increase in urban population, It also tracks the interstate migration of people. Three trend emerges from recent studies:
1. In India, the net migration share in urban growth is up from 21 % over the last decade to 24% in 2001-11.
2. Demographic dynamics, with dropping birth rate has
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Migration rate in rural areas was lowest among the scheduled tribe (ST), nearly 24 percent, and it was highest among those classified in the social group ‘others’, nearly 28 percent. For rural male, migration rate was lowest (nearly 4 per cent) among the ‘not literates’, and it was nearly 14 per cent among those with educational level ‘graduate and above’. For urban males also, it was lowest for among the ‘not literates’ (17 per cent), and 38 per cent for those with educational level ‘graduate or above’ level. Among the migrants in the rural areas, nearly 91 per cent had migrated from the rural areas and 8 per cent had migrated from the urban areas, whereas among the migrants in the urban areas, nearly 59 per cent migrated from the rural areas and 40 per cent from urban areas. The reason for migration for male migrant, was dominated by employment related reasons, in both rural and urban areas. Nearly 29 per cent of rural male migrants and 56 per cent of urban male migrants had migrated due to employment related…show more content…
Maharashtra stands at the top with 2.3 million net migrants, followed by Delhi (1.7 million), Gujarat (0.68 million) and Haryana (0.67 million) as per census. Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7million) were the two states with largest number of net migrants migrating out of the state.

Components of urban population growth:
1. The major component of urban population growth is natural growth with a increase of 40 millions in population.
2. Addition 22 million people due to net rural to urban migration.
3. The rate of natural growth in 2001-11 is 44%, a net decline of 15% when compared with 1991-01.
4. Rate of net rural to urban migration is 24% in 2001-11, a net increase of 3% when compared with last decade.
5. Major rural to urban movement of people occurs between northern and eastern region. Following list depicts the trend flow of migration among the states:
a. Uttar Pradesh to NCR
b. Bihar to NCR
c. Uttar Pradesh to Maharahtra
d. Bihar to West Bengal
e. Tamil Nadu to Kerela
f. Bihar to Uttar

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