Urban Poor Research Paper

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Research Methodology
A. Global Analysis of Urban Poor
1) Basis of the analysis
1. Define poverty
2. Urban poor in total population along with slum dwellers
3. Global and regional poverty trends
4. Changing dynamics
5. High incidence of urban poverty
2) Analysis
1. Knowledge of Urban Poverty Alleviation mechanisms.
2. Most number of Urban Poor.
3) Proposed Parameters and Indicators
1) Basis of the analysis

1. Defining poverty
Poverty is a specific ill in itself, and is unique in having a relative shortage of goods and services at their disposal. It can only be eliminated by promoting policies which targets the compact and not diffusive goal. (HW Watts, An Economic Definition of Poverty, Institute for Research on Poverty).
Poverty should be
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The international poverty line is converted to local currencies using the Bank 's purchasing power parity exchange rates for consumption in 1993 and then updated over time using the best available consumer price index for each country. The poverty lines, expressed in local currency amounts, are applied to the available nationally representative household survey data on household consumption or income per person to determine how many people in each country fall below the $1 and $2 lines.
2. Urban Poverty
Moreover, Urban Poverty (World Bank, Judy L. Baker) is a multi-dimensional phenomenon comprising of many deprivations. It is much beyond collection of characteristics viz-a-viz limited access to employment opportunities, inadequate housing, unhealthy environment, limited social protection mechanisms and inadequate health and education opportunities, a dynamic condition of vulnerability or susceptibility to risks.
Urban Poor refers to individuals or families in urban areas with incomes below the poverty line.
Shares in number of people in the world living on less than $1.25 a day, 1981-2005
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Almost 60% of Latin America’s poor reside in Urban areas, 30% of Eastern Europe’s and Central Asia’s, Less than 30% of Sub-Saharan Africa’s, 20% of South Asia’s, Less than 20% of Middle East’s and North Africa’s and 10% of East Asia and Pacific’s reside in urban areas. Source: Ravallion, Chen, and Sangraula (2007)
Moreover, according to Socioeconomic Data and Application Centre, Columbia University, Poverty Maps report, the world is undergoing significant transformation. As the population of world will be more in urban areas than rural. Africa and Asia are the two regions of the world expected to undergo the most rapid urban change. As it is going to reflect in the world’s poorest countries because they are they have least resources to invest in infrastructure to support them, viz-a-viz, housing, water and sanitation facilities; and least opportunities to avail and climb up to reach above poverty line.
However, more urbanized developing countries of the world tend to have lower poverty rates. As the growth in urban population can help to reduce poverty by either providing income i.e. increases in purchasing power, or by improved distribution of income

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