Urban Slums Case Study

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INTRODUCTION: The growth of urban slums is followed by rapid urbanization.1 Major proportion of the population that is living in urban areas reside in an urban slum. The living conditions in slums are characterized as extreme population density, poor sanitation, inadequate access to safe water, poor housing conditions, have less education and lack of access to basic health services. Such environment is highly favorable for the development and spread of communicable diseases especially among children. An opportunity to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality is provided through the childhood immunization.2,3
The most cost effective public health intervention for control and prevention of vaccine preventable diseases is providing immunization.
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It was hoped that in 21st century, the coverage of children for vaccination against the 9 vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) would reach 100 per cent. In the present study immunization card was available for only 26% of children (Fig. 1) and vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months reflects that only 48% of the children were fully immunized, 50% of the children has received some of the recommended vaccines whereas 02% children were not immunized at all (table I). In study conducted by Painkra SK et al. in urban slums of Raipur city partially immunized children were 22.38% which is in contrast with our findings whereas children not getting even single vaccination (not vaccinated) were 2.38% which is nearly similar to the our study findings.8 Similarly In Study by Yadav et al. conducted in urban slums of Jamnagar city fully immunized were 73.3% which is better from our results.9 Although Pakistan has made significant improvement in EPI coverage but the findings of our study suggest that still it has to adopt a more aggressive implementation strategy to improve immunization coverage especially in rural areas and urban

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