Additionally, the insufficient clean water supply to every household reduces their desire to keep clean personally and environmentally as they do not have excessive water for the consistent clean-up. This contributes to the spread of epidemic diseases like influenza in the society. Prahalad and Hammond (2002) suggested that the urban poor in Dharavi have to pay much more for water supply, about “37 times the municipal price charged in a neighboring middle-class area receiving
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION A slum is a compact area of 60-70% of the households having poorly congested rooms with inadequate infrastructure, lack of proper sanitation and drinking water facilities (Slum Survey, 2001). Slum includes dwellings which on account of overcrowding and lack of ventilation are detrimental to the safety, health and social morale (Census of India, 1961). India is a developing economy and slum population is growing at an alarming rate. It is now reported that one third of the total slum population lives in cities like Kanpur, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Nagpur, Chennai, Delhi, Bengaluru, Hyderabad etc. In India, cities with million plus population nearly have one fourth of their population living in slums (Census, 2011).
Serum concentrations of sE-selectin were determined using ELISA technique. Patients were assessed using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scoring and Pediatric Risk of Mortality III-24 (PRISM III-24) score. Results: Serum soluble E-selectin level (obtained within 24 hours of ICU admission) showed a mean of 227.32 ± 33.03 ng/ml in the patient group with sepsis compared to 86.6 ± 17.82 ng/ml in the control group. The difference was statistically highly significant (P value < 0.001). However, the difference was statistically insignificant between patients (sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock) subgroups (P value 0.05 for all).
This important fact leaves underdeveloped regions at risk. After a close study of the progress made towards global eradication of polio, it can be deduced that improved sanitation played an essential role in the eradication of polio in the United States of America (USA) in the 1960s, when only half of the population was immunized. [Rana M.] In comparison an examination of the continuous spread of the disease in the remaining 3 endemic countries and a noted similarity among these countries is the alarming rate of poverty, ignorance as well inadequacy of sanitation infrastructure. lack of adequate awareness concerning the polio virus, risk factors as well as the benefits of vaccination in combating polio remains an issue despite the long and tedious journey to global eradication, irrespective of the awareness various governments and non-governmental organizations have tried to create, certain religious or traditional sects have teachings against some health practices which include vaccination. It is also important to know that immunity against the virus is unachievable without efficient
DIGITAL ASSIGNMENT-01 17BCE2049 LINGALA ANTHONY NIKHIL REDDY Urban environmental problems and solutions in India. Introduction: Recent concern for the environment is not only due to natural phenomenon, but the urbanization has made people more aware of the environmental issues and their quality. population beyond the multiple times of the sustaining capacity has made the urban centres polluted, overcrowded and exerted pressures on social and physical amenities.The Concentration of industries in and around urban centres has exposed the urban population to all sorts of risks. These risks can remain unnoticed due to its slow introduction such as increasing the quantity of pollutants in river Ganga, or can be sudden due to some
1. Background It has been estimated that an estimated 828 million people, representing one third of the urban population in the world today are living in slums (UN-Habitat, 2003). Mike Davis characterises slums by “by overcrowding, poor or informal housing, inadequate access too safe water and sanitation, and insecurity of tenure” (Davis, 2006). From a mainstream view, it can be said that slums “spoil” the look of a city. Because slums breed poverty and high unemployment, there is a high crime rate stemming from these neighbourhoods.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Urban poor communities. According to the World Bank (2011) in the section of urban poverty and slum upgrading, communities that are from urban poor are not only those who are deprived from unhealthy environment or who have restricted approach towards health and educational resources, etc. It is actually a dynamic condition whereby people from areas that are susceptible to risk of those stated earlier are also considered as urban poor community. Sinniah, B., Hassan, A.K.R., Sabaridah, etc (2014) stated that to find small businessmen, fairly well educated people, students, government civil servants, self employed and others in urban slum areas are fairly common. This is because those people in urban slum areas
The process of urbanization is linked with the economic development, which makes an increasingly higher contribution of the national economy. However, when the growth of urban population takes place at an exceptionally rapid rate, most cities and towns are unable to cope with changing situations due to their internal resources constraints and management limitations. Provision of infrastructure services viz., water drainage and sanitation along with waste disposal are greatest concern to human settlements. Failure to provide these services adequately results in many of well-known costs of rapid urbanization: threats to health, loss of urban productivity and environmental quality. On one hand, pressures for modernization give rise to continuous development activities, which deplete natural resources.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Health is essential to life; it is the wellbeing of an individual. The general overall condition of someone in terms of fitness, soundness, vitality and proper functioning. (Encarta 2009) Urbanization factor in Ogun state (i.e. the presence of Olusegun Obasanjo’s farm, Canaan land and Africa Leadership Forum) security, commercial centres and affordable housing causes cluster and improper control of these increases the health risk of the municipals. Rapid and unplanned urban growth is often linked with poverty, environmental degradation (any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be undesirable) and population demands that outstrip service capacity.
The definition of sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of hazardous waste and its contact with human skin and the environment, as well as the disposal of sewage. South Africa is faced with a daunting ‘wicked problem’ of inadequate sanitation facilities. 18 million residents do not have access to toilet facilities. National goals to eradicate this sanitation problem by 2015 were not met (Sanitation Today, 2009). A third of our nation are forced to defecate in the open, use a pit toilet, or use a toilet that is dirty and infested with flies and is disgustingly smelly.