CRR-3: City as a sociological construct Muhammad Ahmed Zeeshan 12290 Urban sociology, the sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas, gained prominence within the academy in North America through a group of sociologists and theorists at the University of Chicago from 1915 to 1940. It became later known as the Chicago School of Sociology and combined sociological and anthropological theory with ethnographic fieldwork to understand how individuals interact within urban social systems with different structural, cultural and social conditions. Their focus was on how the increase in urbanism during the time of the Industrial Revolution was magnifying contemporary social problems. They sought to address the physical and social ills that had arisen in industrial cities. From among the urban sociologists that we have read, the one who impressed me the most is German philosopher George Simmel.
It helps by showing us how ancient people acted. Trade area- A region adjacent to every city and town within which its influence is dominant. This shows us how people have influence over others. Rank-size rule- In the model of urban hierarchy, the population of a city is inversely proportional to the city’s rank in the hierarchy. It helps us by showing us how human put themselves over others because “they are better.” Primate city- A country’s largest city also the most expensive it is usually the country’s capital.
Urbanization can be defined as “an increase in the proportion of a country’s population living in urban centers.” (Badcock, 2002). The formation of the concentric zone model can be attributed to one of two things namely; migration and urbanization. Migrants moving from one country to another forces the recipient country to make plans for appropriate housing and most migrants flock towards the city centers as they are the hub for job opportunities. In terms of urbanization when people from rural or countryside areas move to the cities, again a major driving force is job opportunities; the question of housing becomes an issue. Rapid building of housing begins and in the case of New Zealand house sizes became smaller to accommodate the need for more houses in one area.
It is a for some a critical issue within Johannesburg, one of the critical issues are the privatization of public space which results in more business blocks and apartments changing the landscape of an area, also possibly attracting large corporations into area’s and thus removing smaller entrepreneurs within that district (Davies, 1981). The displacement of inner city poor which would lead to more and larger squatter camps with little or no health, electricity and water (Davies, 1981). Also the removal of the poor could boost the countries unemployment rate as poor people will need to now travel further for work but will however have no money for transport. This is however a critical view toward gentrification. However gentrification promotes job growth in both the renewal of these area’s as well as possible job employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors after gentrification has occurred (Davies, 1981).
This $180 million US dollar used for this project and it was create a “slum to neighborhood” effect. The Favela Barirro improved over 150 communities and has been responsible for urbanizing some areas, creating access roads, and basic sewage services. It was also one of the first programs that was able to voice the opinions of the favela population and really identify the needs of the residents. This programme were
urban Renewal is the urban planning of F. Stuart Chapin in his classic text definition, Urban Land Use Planning, as a "therapeutic change in the body of obsolete or outdated urban structures and facilities throughout the region, change or replace the response to stress Social and economic changes. "He pointed out that this process has taken place because of the birth of civilization. With the modernization of society and the influx of southern immigrants and European immigrants into American cities in the first half of the twentieth century, the process was accelerated and the response of the federal government was thus given ample housing and the urgent need for urban renewal. In the following cases, narrative, urban renewal in the United
This means that stereotypes and racism might influence their decisions. As a matter of fact it is a plain example for individual racism caused by institutional racism. Even they are chosen for a public dwelling, sometimes there is quota that does not allow more than a certain percentage of immigrants to live in a given neighborhood or block of houses and when rental units are unavailable or inaccessible, households are forced to buy sub-standard dwelling. (van Hoorn and van Ginkel, 1986)..Discrimination, both direct and indirect, also exists in the private housing sector. According to a report prepared by European Commission, one of the main reasons of housing discrimination is the tendency to design homes based on the typical person, and neglect the needs of individuals who do not fit into this mould.
Global derivative market: Early forward contracts in the US addressed merchants' concerns about ensuring that there were buyers and sellers for commodities. However "credit risk" remained a serious problem. To deal with this problem, a group of Chicago businessmen formed the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) in 1848. The primary intention of the CBOT was to provide a centralized location known in advance for buyers and sellers to negotiate forward contracts. In 1865, the CBOT went one step further and listed the first "exchange traded" derivatives contract in the US; these contracts were called "futures contracts".
This, Simon notes, is not the result of a political decision but a powerful combination of socio-economic segregation and ethnic-racial discrimination. Cities struggle between trends of cultural homogenisation and heterogenization. The homogenisation process imposes certain fixed identity on the right to city.Many cities in the world are socially, economically and ethnically fragmented. Some of them are even becoming socially, ethnically and racially ghettoised. In one hand, Intergroup encounters happens in increased number in a city, and they develop can develop and cultural production take place.
The contemporary world is an urban world. This is apparent in the expansion of urban areas and the extension of urban influences across much of the habitable surface of the planet. Today, for the first time in the history of humankind, urban dwellers outnumber rural residents. Urban places – towns and cities – are of fundamental importance: for the distribution of population within countries; in the organization of economic production, distribution and exchange; in the structuring of social reproduction and cultural life; and in the allocation and exercise of power. Furthermore, in the course of the present century the number of urban dwellers and level of global urbanization are likely to increase.