Industrial revolution is causation of urbanization and colonial expansion, which lead to many changes in the European society. Along with the industrial revolution, a large number of factories were build attracted a huge amount of workers. In addition, technology increases efficiency of both industrial and agricultural works. In an industrial economy, proportion of agricultural contribution did not dominate in the total production 's as before; therefore, there was a requirement in mobilizing and redeploying labor from agricultural to non-agricultural works (Eric 1996, 64). Many people changed their work from agricultural to non-agricultural tasks moved to industrial regions and lead to mass migrations within a country.
An open, interactive, system may receive nourishment and sustainability from within itself and from its relationships with others (Heinenon & Spearman, 2001). A system that is closed, or isolated, may become increasingly vulnerable and experience entropy. Such a system manifests itself as problems for a client. ‘Ecology’ also emphasizes the correlation between the dynamics of permeation and health with a context of person-interaction-environment; in this case possible harmful issues with a client, their respective environment, and/or the interactions (Heinenon & Spearman, 2001). The ‘ecosystems framework’ could then be combined with other frameworks of the social work profession and its respective practices.
In relation to social-ecological systems, this conceptual understanding incorporates the idea of adaptation, learning, self-organization, and general ability to persist disturbance (Pisano, 2012). This would indicate that social-ecological resilience is all about people and nature as interdependent systems (Folke et al., 2006). Here becomes plausible that it is irrational to separate the ecological and social elements and to try to explain them independently, even for analytical purposes. Resilience has a linking role to understand the factors that enable households to protect their livelihoods from the adverse consequences of change such as climate variability (Speranza et al., 2014). Essentially, social-ecological resilience system captures driving factors that enable functioning of households under adverse conditions.
The period from 1877 to 1920s economic, political and social crises hits the American society. During this period industrialization significantly impacted people 's lives in a variety of ways. The booming industries transformed America into urban culture. However, this transition came with complex social, economic and political challenges. Living conditions of workers, housing, transportation, epidemic, an environmental problem emerged with the growing industries and urbanization in the country.
Both urbanization and ecosystem loss disturb the natural balance of planet Earth. Therefore, it motivated me to take this topic. “Urbanization is when towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people move in from rural areas to work and live.”1 “Ecosystem loss happen , when ecosystems face the threat of being endangered or extinct due to human activity.” 2 As human populations increase in cities and towns, the effect of urbanization becomes
1. The urbanization is a crucial process for the development of any society as it allows to make an emphasis on the development of the cities, where a significant amount of financial resources concentrate. The fact that many people moved from the rural areas to the cities in the middle of the 20th century, caused an immense growth of an industry, trade, and business across the country. There are both positive and negative outcomes of the urbanization; however, these outcomes are most commonly referred to as the push-pull factors. Both push and pull factors can be beneficial for particular groups of people while being disadvantaging to the other groups.
Aging represents a complex combination of physiological, behavioral, and environmental changes. These changes occur at individual and community levels. The ecological view is based on the notion that behavioral and environmental factors play a crucial role in determining the patterns of health and well-being throughout the life of an individual (Satariano, 2005). The ecological model tries to identify possible interventions from biologic to environmental levels which could delay disease and death. In doing so, it increases the chances for health and longevity of older people.
Being exposed to air polluted with harmful toxins can result in complication with the respiratory system and inflammatory organs. This can lead to an increased susceptibility of chronic diseases. With the social justice approach, communities can collectively work together to reduce the damaging effects climate change has on environmental and health outcomes. As social justice focuses the just distribution of burdens and diseases, marketplace fairness fixates on personal responsibility, self-interest, and individualism as the basis for outcomes. Individualized actions to reduce effects of climate change can include car-pooling, investing in renewable power resources, and orchestrating gardens and timber to supply supplemental oxygen into the air.
Therefore, by taking economic, social, environmental issues into accounts is a key approach to develop sustainably in different contexts. According to Griggs et al. (2013), the improvement of life quality should be within the scope of earth’s ability to support human well-beings. They mentioned that the twin priorities for sustainable development goals(SDG) must be both the earth’s life-support system and poverty reduction . It is also noticeable that different from the common understanding, which often puts clean air, ecosystem services and biodiversity into the category of environmental sustainability, Griggs et al.
Urban sprawl has increased certain environmental issues starting with deforestation. Urban Sprawl is when population moves from a populated area to a low density residential development in other words people move from certain areas to another to find somewhere “better” to live, many think it’s a good idea when it comes to moving, but what
In this view, it is important to identify the social and environmental factors that greatly influence the health of the individuals and the population. As well as knowing which program can meet the needs for them in terms of benefit, cost, and burden (Holden, et al., 2015). The social determinants of the individuals are explained by