THE DYNAMICS OF INDONESIA’S URBANIZATION 1980-2006 INTRODUCTION Emerging economies are mostly described by the high level of urbanization. However, this is not the case in Indonesia. The goal of the article is to ascertain the relationship between economic emergence and urbanization. Urbanization is a revolution from rural to a developed way of living. It is perceived as one of the world’s leading most notable socio-economic changes.
The VOC weapons domination since ruled the archipelago was evoked population migration to hinterland. However, migration in Indonesia occurs more frequently in twentieth century. After independence, the government did transmigration to reducing the rate of population density. On the other hand, transmigration involves not only government, but also spontaneous migration. The map shows the most populated areas is Java Island, which reaches 600-1,299 people per Kilometer Square.
Lower sales of products had created economic depression which led lower salaries and endangered the life of middle class families. They greeted the war initiatives in the hope that it would open more opportunities and help recover the economic condition. President McKinley’s objectives, on the other hand, were not for colony, just expansion of the spheres of influence for the sake of trade and commerce. He wanted at least a foothold in Philippines so that he could make Manila Bay part of a chain of bases-Hawaii, Guam, Wake- across the Pacific Ocean that could serve as a stepping stone to China and a center of U.S. power in the Western Pacific. After accomplishing this objective, the United States adopted ‘Open Door Policy’ to China along with imperial power England and Russia.
With Brazil in an strong situation to weather a recession prior to the decrease in price of their main exported goods, based on the data their good situation then was not a strong enough buffer alone to prevent their real GDP growth from declining below negative ranges. That, coupled with political uncertainty due to the recent impeachment of former president Dilma Rousseff, further worsened the situation for Brazil causing political uncertainty. Sadly, the Philippines is in a very similar
On the other hand, this rapid trend towards urbanization raises a number of challenges. One is the pollution. There are various kinds of pollution in the world, such as water pollution, garbage pollution, particularly the air pollution. It can be predicted that the more people congregate in cities, the more carbon dioxide will be produced, resulting in the air pollution and even the global warming. The other is the overconsumption.
Compare and contrast the main characteristics of the urbanization process in the First and Third World Introduction Observing the expansion of cities, development of central business district as the core of a city and huge population migrating into more-developed urban area, we can deduce that we have been under the influence of urbanization. Urbanization—known as the major trend after the 18th century’s Industrial Revolution— basically refers to the rise in proportion of the total population living in urban areas (Pacione, Michael, 2009). Under globalization, boundaries of countries being blurrier, the process of urbanization seems to be inevitable, whilst proceeding differently in First and Third World countries. And so, in this essay,
Urbanization is seen as an effect of the current globalization phenomenon, as people, through their view of urban centers as a rich source of employment and access to other economic activities, coupled with the fact that social amenities are available in urban areas as opposed to rural areas, continue to migrate to urban areas to access this facilities. Urbanization is defined as the continued proportional increase of an entire population which live in urban areas and the surrounding sub-urban areas. It is a function of population increase, which can occur through natural growth within the existing population and rural-urban or urban-urban migration. (Owuor,2012).Urbanization is greatly linked to industrialization which took place in the mid 18th century in parts of Europe and which many countries continue to experience. As industries continued to grow, there was emergence of towns due to concentration of labor in the industrial areas and the emerging needs for housing and other social amenities for the factory
On one hand, great importance was attached to physical infrastructure in the poverty reduction efforts of developing countries and on the other hand, many in the international development community viewed assistance for infrastructure with considerable skepticism on three grounds (DFID 2002). First, though it was important for economic growth, infrastructure investment had little relevance to poverty reduction. The second one is actual benefits from infrastructure were significantly less than anticipated. And the third one, weak governance and institutions gave way to corruption, distorted public investment choices, and neglected maintenance, thereby lowering infrastructure’s contribution to economic growth and diverting benefits intended for the poor. Presently, almost 70% of infrastructure investment in developing countries is financed by governments or public utilities from their own resources or from nonconcessional borrowings, 3% from aid, and the balance from the private sector (DFID 2002).
“IMPLICATIONS OF EXCESSIVE URABANIZATION IN PAKISTAN” INTRODUCTION Urbanization means the movement of people from less developed areas to the more developed areas that consequently increases the urban population. People from less developed areas of Pakistan leave their hometowns in search of better livings. This is resulting in overall increase in the urban population of Pakistan. This is not the sole reason for the increase in the urban population. The second reason is the overall increase of the population of Pakistan which resultantly is causing urbanization in Pakistan.
The focus of the article is how globalisation has changed the way cities function and how industries has changed with time. With increasing globalisation, cities become multicultural as cities open up to more immigrants and industries. In particular, immigration is a major factor which has changed the way the economy works. As technology and telecommunications advances, cities have become the centre for the finances and its flow. Sassen argues that cities have now become strategic production sites for economic activities.