The reading this week is by Mike Davis, and is titled Planet of Slums. Mike Davis creates an argument on how slums are a worldly issue that is spreading. Davis first begins his argument with statistics based on the monumental increase of population in all countries across the globe. He also uses examples of the increase of hypercities and megacities due to intensified urbanization in Mexico-city, Seoul-Injon, and New York. Which leads into the effects on the citizens, such as China and India, and the lack of proper housing and accommodations with such a rapidly growing population.
Since 1980, the number of people in Chinese cities has gone up from 191 million to 622 million. The number continues to increase rapidly. As certain areas used to be seen as countryside are converted into urban regions to promote growth. This is the consequence of the migration of rural workers into cities, which is a particular problem in China as the country has a situation of hukou, which is a "two-tiered population structure of rural and urban citizens". While urban hukou accumulate a number of social benefits, including access to good healthcare, despite simply moving from countryside to a city does not always change one’s classification.
1. The urbanization is a crucial process for the development of any society as it allows to make an emphasis on the development of the cities, where a significant amount of financial resources concentrate. The fact that many people moved from the rural areas to the cities in the middle of the 20th century, caused an immense growth of an industry, trade, and business across the country. There are both positive and negative outcomes of the urbanization; however, these outcomes are most commonly referred to as the push-pull factors. Both push and pull factors can be beneficial for particular groups of people while being disadvantaging to the other groups.
The challenge that is normally encountered is increasing population growth, this means that there should be an increase of infrastructure to accommodate people. Most of the cities are expanding outwards while other are slightly considering an upward expansion. The new population which is mainly the working class immigrants have occupied places that are developed in the long ago and the people who use to stay in those places have migrated to urban areas. When people in the inner city are migrating to other areas, the buildings which they previously occupied are then neglected. The South African cities should grow upwards because the land value is rapidly increasing.
Joint problem-solving arrangements: Which included routines associated with adjustment and coordination that, despite economists predictions, were more efficient than market-based mechanisms of coordination. The notion that economic action is embedded in social structure has revived debates about the positive and negative effects of social relations on economic behavior. While most organization theorists hold that social structure plays a significant role in economic behavior, many economic theorists maintain that social relations minimally affect economic transacting or create inefficiencies by shielding the transaction from the market (Peterson and Rajan, 1994). In this regard, Granovetter's (1985) embeddedness argument has emerged as a potential theory for joining economic and sociological approaches to organization theory. As presently developed, however, Granovetter's argument lacks its own concrete account of how social relations affect economic exchange.
Globalisation is a process or system of integration and interconnection of national economies with the end and intent to encourage trade, enhance economic growth, increase capital flows and reduce poverty. Reduced costs of transportation and communication and revolution in technology have played an enormous role in globalising the world. However, the dynamics of globalisation and realities of global interdependencies are complex and have not achieved the desired results. Although driven by economic activity, globalisation has an impact on the social, cultural and political aspects of a nation. Globalisation is beneficial for a country’s growth and development, however, the present form of globalisation, which is shaped by a series of political
The multifaceted nature of cosmopolitanism has changed the history of the social worlds (Nussbaum 2008). The collapse of the world order calls the reflection on the social theories such as Marxism, interactionism, structuralism, systems theory, which appear to be outdated toady, outdated because they do not address the modern transformations in politics and social aspects of human life. These modern changes not only
In reality, clearly gentrification influences reliably the urban development. In any case, impacts of gentrification can be very disputable. From one viewpoint, gentrification stimulates the financial development of communities, where representatives of the middle class move to. Be that as it may, monetary advantages might be short-run, though, in a long-run point of view, gentrification can prompt the enlarging hole between the rich and the poor in urban areas. The latter issue will prompt the deterioration of the social dependability inside urban areas.
Weber however took more of a pessimistic view arguing that society is characterised by the process of rationalisation. Marx sees change through capitalism and conflict and Weber sees change through rationalisation and bureaucracy. Both have differing views about social change and the outcome of such change. Marx’s views are much more optimistic than Weber’s idealistic pessimistic views. Karl Marx Marx’s theory of social change is entwined with his idea of social classes and class conflicts.
The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were periods of tremendous urban growth that radically changed the country. Between 1860 and 1910, the population of cities with 2,500 or more residents climbed from 6 million to 46 million. Some of this new urban population came from the American countryside – between 1880 and 1910, about 11 million Americans moved to cities from rural areas. Millions more were immigrants. But in any case, American society, culture, politics, economics – in short, everything -- was changed in the transformation from rural, agricultural country to urban, industrial nation.