Staphylococcus aureus is the usual pathogen, and other organisms such as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are sometimes involved. Occasionally, anaerobic organisms (clostridia, anaerobic streptococci or Bacteroides) appear in contaminated wounds (Nayagam, 2010). In Yangon General Hospital, the common bacterial pathogens isolated in open fracture wound infection were Pseudomonas species (31.15%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. Other organisms such as Coagulase negative staphylococci and Enterococcus species, Proteus species, Citrobacter species, Klebsiella species, Beta haemolytic streptococci were found in open fracture wound infection (Aye-Mya-Thu, 2010). Open fracture management is a complex and integrated approach, including preoperative prophylactic antibiotics, thorough irrigation and debridement, fracture stabilization, and postoperative antibiotic management.
diagnosis : A variety of methods for the detection of H. pylori have been described shortly after the identification of this pathogen and they have been continually improved and extended over time. Diagnostic methods for H. pylori infection are usually classified as invasive and noninvasive. The invasive tests including histology, urease tests and culture, require upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for obtaining the diagnostic sample. On the other hand, non-invasive methods include the urea breath test, serology and stool antigen test . (12) Invasive Methods : Rapid Urease Test The Rapid Urease Test (RUT) is a popular invasive diagnostic H. pylori test that is relatively quick, cheap and simple to perform.
Urinary tract infections)UTIs) An infection in the urinary tract is called a urinary tract infection, or UTI. UTIs are expert by millions of people each year. Women are especially vulnerable to UTIs. The cause of a urinary tract infection is bacteria, which often make their way from the digestive tract into the urinary system. One type of bacteria, Escherichia coli (or E. coli), normally lives in the colon.
Department of Health and Human Services established an objective for Healthy People 2020 to prevent HCAIs, this reflects that the U.S. health care system is committed to and serious about solving this issue. These objectives address two extremely important topics, central line-associated bloodstream infections, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Also, there are other major causes of HCAIs that Health and Human Services is working on their prevention such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) associated with catheters, infections of surgical wounds and sites, C. difficile infections, and ventilator-associated Pneumonia. Researches done on HCAIs shown that we can prevent many of these infections by implementing effective strategies to eradicate it, adapting some advanced prevention tools, and following new prevention approaches. There should be a more focus on HCAIs prevention in acute care settings.
Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria are easily transmitted from patient to patient on the hands of health care providers and the patients themselves. In addition to the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with Staphylococcus Aureus infection, the economic cost of Staphylococcus Aureus bacteraemia in this population is striking. (Engemann et al., 2005) According to Nissenson (2005) patients with end-stage renal disease and septicaemia caused by Staphylococcus Aureus had costly and lengthy hospitalisations, which frequently were associated with clinically and economically important complications, including hospital
These findings were in accordance with a study conducted by Edmiston et al(11) who found that common organisms colonizing infected sutures include Serratia spp, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Peptostreptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacteroides fragilis and Serratia spp. Although a skin commensal ,it is siginificant to know that staphylococci are responsible for a number of skin infections(32) (33) and will undoubtebly play a role in causing a wound infection in presence of a suture. Gram negative organisms such as Klebsiella, pseudomonas are non- commensals having a role in skin
Introduction As we all know, bacteria is a very complex organism and the subject can be very broad. In this essay, the focus will be on bacteria and the bacterial cell structure. Different forms of bacteria, its pros and cons, the cell structure, diseases and resistance will be explained and listed. First bacteria and cell structure is explained, and then moving on to different bacterial forms and diseases, and how diseases can be prevented or even cured. Then finishing the essay will be the conclusion.
A wound is a disorder in the normal anatomical structure and function of living tissue which may be caused by physical, chemical, microbiological or immunological injury. Globally wounds also represent a significant burden on the patients and health care professionals or givers. Wound infection is also significant in that they are the most common nosocomial infection (Orrett, 2002) . Infection of the wound is the successful invasion, and proliferation by one or more organisms anywhere within the body’s sterile tissues and sometimes accompanied with pus formation (Calvin, 1998).Wound infection may result to prolong hospital stay, delay wound healing, increases cost of health care and morbidity in surgical patients (Orrett, 2002).. Wound infection with multiple organisms may even result to multiple organ failure or death of the patient when it becomes chronic.
BACKGROUND The prevalence of older adults with urinary incontinence (UI) is increasing rapidly as the population becomes older. (1) Estimates of the prevalence of UI in residents in nursing home facilities range from 50% to 70%. (2) UI can severely affect quality of life, and its costs for society are high The major clinical types of urinary incontinence are stress incontinence (leakage with maneuvers that increase intra-abdominal pressure), urgency incontinence (sudden urgency followed by leakage), mixed incontinence (symptoms of both stress and urgency), and overflow incontinence. Urinary incontinence is common in women. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in men is approximately half that of women.
Herpes zoster and CMV (Cytomegalovirus) are common among transplanted patients as other infections. Pseudocystis Carinii is also seen (Cause of Pneumonia). Due to the long term, continous immunosuppresion (as long as the graft functions) there is also high incidence of Malignancies (lymphomas and other malignancies, especially skin cancers and Kaposi Sarcoma). Prednisolone is an important immunosuppressive agent and the long term use of it is associated with increased incidence of Diabetes Mellitus, Catarracts, hyperlipidemia, gastric ulceration, obesity, osteoporosis and others.
Researchers used nursing theories to help guide research on complicated phenomena(Connelly, 2014). After reviewing evidences collected on the topic "Antibiotic therapy and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)", the most common theories that have been cited are, exposure to antibiotic, especiallyin patients that have been previously diagnosed with bacterial infections(respiratory, urinary and osteoarticular infections) are significanly at risk for acquiring CDI and theory for prevention cited was implementation of an Antibiotic stewardship program. Inaddition,hand hygiene, contact precaution and environmental cleaning protocols where other interventions listed. Concept Definitions Exposure to antibiotic- is operationally defined as the last time within 30 days a hospitalized patients received antibiotic therapy before the current hospital
Bacteria and viruses are spread throughout an environment on a daily basis, which can trigger symptoms of an individual with the disease. Just like most diseases, Crohn’s can be acquired by consuming bacteria from the disease or catching a virus that may lead to
Discussion Post Week ten NURS 6501, N-21 Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually caused by bacteria and are common. Symptoms of both upper and lower infections are similar; therefore, it is important for advanced practice nurses (APNs) to be able to determine the pathophysiology of upper and lower UTIs. The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate the similarities and differences between upper and lower UTIs, clinical manifestations, treatments, and factors affecting all of these things. UTIs are infections that may occur anywhere in the urinary tract such as the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. Typically UTIs are caused by bacteria from the gut flora and are inflammation of the urinary epithelium.
This cost includes healthcare expenditures, costs associated with accidents and crime, and lost earnings. Cumulatively, diabetes and cancer cost the country $400 billion annually. Furthermore, many Americans perceive drug abuse as a significant public health problem because many medical conditions