What mass communication scholars today refer to as the Uses and Gratifications approach is generally recognized to be a subtradition of media effects research (McQuail, 1994). According to what Ballard (2011) has claimed ”The approach places power in the hands of the audience and is a helpful perspective when trying to understand media usage, exposure, and effects”. In general, U&G theory focus on how audiences actively select social media and fulfill their needs and achieve gratification. U&G theory framework has opened a valuable perspective for the scholars and researchers to study the behaviors in the area of where audiences choose and why they reply on certain medias. Uses and gratification theory was originally developed to examine
The theories tend to intertwine. Uses and gratification theory studies how people use media, and become dependent on it. The audience may use media for many reasons for example to seek information, entertainment, sociability etc. The Media Dependency Theory suggests that the more a person becomes dependent on the media to satisfy these needs, the more the media becomes important to the individual. Also, tying the theory to agenda setting, if the individual is so dependent on the media for information, the media will have much more influence and power over the individual making it easy for the media to agenda set.
Nevertheless, it has been stated that this framework undertaken by the BFI is extremely valuable in developing an understanding of the media and the communication process. It is a descriptive framework which not only seeks to examine the media institutions concerns but also society’s questions. Further, it helps to define the significant phenomena that are encountered in media study, questions typically asked about the media, or topics that are frequently discussed. Thus, while these questions may not be all encompassing, they help to create a foundation upon which further discourse can be encouraged
Billings (2011), mass media can be described as being “…both an umbrella and a plural term. It brings together a range of communicative technologies, institutions, audiences, practices and texts while reaffirming that the constituents of this implied singular entity are, instead, multiple, different and irreducible.” Media has a significant role to play in modern society. It can cause serious changes and improve social situation as it affects our civil, cultural, political, economic and aesthetic outlook. An example is Mediacorp, which is the biggest broadcaster in Singapore. As the national broadcaster, Mediacorp is regularly seeking new ways to provide valued content for their viewers.
Enactive learning describes how people learn from experience. In the social cognitive view, interaction with the environment (media environment, in this case) influence of media exposure by constantly reforming expectations about likely outcomes of future media consumption behavior (by Bandura, 1986). Apparently, this amounts to the same process that describes the relationship between gratifications sought, media behavior and gratifications obtained (Palm Green et al., 1985). Recognizing this parallel, we next examine social-cognitive theory as a source of further insights into the use of Internet. Social cognitive theory explains behavior in terms of mutual causality between individuals, their environment and their behavior (Bandura, 1986, 1989).
In this election the research team wanted to find out whether Mr Roosevelt would retain the office in his third term and hence the Columbia’s Office of Radio Research carried out a study where they could find out more about the way people voted. Paul Lazarsfeld, an American Social Researcher, Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet were in charge of conducting this study where they found out that messages that were given by the media influenced the public less compared to informal personal communications by known and recognized names, faces or voices. Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz thereby came up with the ‘Two Step Flow’ theory wherein they propounded that the media messages are communicated in 2 levels. In the first level the message through any of the media channels is communicated to an individual. This individual is known as the opinion leader.
Data collected by writing, record and classify such conversations based on directive and expressive type illocutionary acts. The main theory used in this research is the theory of Taxonomy of Illocutionary Acts by Searle (1979) as well as supporting theory of Ethnography of Communication theory by Hymes (1974). As the result found that there are three types of directive acts ordering, inviting and advise, five types of expressive acts are blaming, apologizing, praising, congratulating and thanking by Searle (1979) found in the film dialogue 'American Pie 5 ' and influenced by the context of situation. It can be said that this thesis has the most influence for the researcher. The researcher intends to redefine the existing discussion through the Inside Out movie with the context of different situations.
This chapter covers the research methodology and design, including sampling, population, establishing the accuracy during and after data collection, data analysis and ethical considerations. The literature review has indicated that communication skill is a critical component in preparing for great leaders in a digital society. According to Hall (2001), available technologies our perceptions of these technologies and how they are used will determine the shape of our world. Citizens of the future will face challenges that depend on the development and application of technology. Are our leaders prepared and ready for this paradigm shift of communicating through tools such as social media?
Digital Technology and Social Media’s Necessity in Communication Theory Courses Communication is a social process in which individuals imply symbols or behaviors to create meaning in their surroundings (West & Turner, 2018). Communication plays a vital role in society, especially in the present, digital mass media. While communication is often presumed to be face-to-face interaction, due to digital technology social media has altered that assumption. Social networking has a variety of discrete characteristics and trending effects. The use of social media is necessary to study to enhance better communication skills and is important to study in a communication theory course.
His involvement in communication policy making is facilitated by the so-called institutionalization of people power. His expertise may be directly tapped by the most important stakeholder, the media consumer. The participation of information users and media consumers in policy making may be realized by the formation of a nationwide media consumer’s organization or a federation of local organizations of this nature in which policy analysts play a significant role. This proposed organization could initiate media education in the formal and non-formal modes. Media education at the formal level may be facilitated by lobbying for the inclusion of such in existing secondary and tertiary curricula.