One of the recent important theories that concentrate on enjoyment that media consumers get from media is Disposition Theory. As states Arthur A. Raney in his article, “Why do we like what we like?” considered as the main question that needed to find answer by social scientists (Raney, 2006, p3). What is Disposition Theory? The theory first theorized by Zillman and Cantor in 1972. Disposition theory mainly focuses on enjoyment that audience gets from presented entertainment.
Magic Bullet Theory also known as Hypodermic Needle Theory. This theory is a model of communications. This theory has been around since 1920s and mostly used to explain how mass audiences might react to mass media. According to University of Twent in the Netherlands, the theory states that the mass media has a huge, powerful and also direct effect to the audiences. The mass media in the 1940s and 1950s were perceived as a powerful influence on behavior change.
The fundamental idea on which Hofstede’s model would eventually be based on had already emerged during the first half of the twentieth century. It was then that the view that all societies, modern and traditional, are confronted with the same basic problems and only their way of handling them is different evolved among social anthropologists. Particularly anthropologists Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead played a significant role in spreading this opinion. Hence, through research, social scientists began to identify those problems all societies have in common (Hofstede, Hofstede and Minkov, 2010, p. 29). By means of a broad survey on English literature concerning national culture, Inkeles and Levinson (1954) came up with the following issues
INTRODUCTION James D.Halloran , (1970 pp 21-50) made reference to a publication by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), which states that intelligent publication policies depended on the availability of information that only re-search could provide .Given the critical role of the media, it therefore becomes necessary for research to be conducted both on the media and the society. Halloran further states that “a true understanding of the nature of research and its application calls for an understand-ing of the historical, economic, political, organizational, professional and personal factors that impinge on the research process in so many ways’. The study of the media attracted many academic disciplines
In 1944 she claimed the early term gratifications and used that to express the particular dimensions of usage satisfaction of radio audiences. The research was conducted from her study on radio listeners. It provided Herta Herzog the fundamentals to allude three categories of gratifications, which are emotional release, wishful thinking and learning (West R 2009). In 1948 the American communications theorist Harold Dwight Lasswell(1948, P37) published his experiment, which is used to describe an act in communication by five segmentations, the model is known as Dance Model: “Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) What Channel (with) What Effect.” He also argued that the communication process in society performs three functions: “ (a) surveillance of the environment; (b) correlation of the components of society in making a response to the environment; (c) transmission of the social inheritance (1948,
When conduct qualitative studies on behavior, data such as how people experience and feel events in their lives will be capture (Beins, 2004) in order to generate hypotheses and theories to understand the situations in organizational settings (Spector, 2005). Qualitative research begin widely use in the early of 1970s since researchers needed additional methods to understand their research topics in-depth (Lee, Mitchell, & Sablynski, 1999). On the same time, interdisciplinary approach also started to growth (Tylor & Bogdan, 1998). Qualitative researchers will focus more on the questions “why” compare with quantitative researchers only focus on quantitative answers. Most of the qualitative researcher will required to personally involve in the entire research process (Spector, 2005).
Here the term “dysfunctional” is used just to describe behaviors that move people away from their personal goals or from the ones set by their social environment. Researchers from the fields of Economy and Psychology have shown that in certain circumstances people behave inconsistently with their long term goals or values. They found that individuals’ behavioral responses are in fact greatly influenced by contextual factors. The principles that lie behind choices and their relation with contextual factors has been studied in depth for many decades by behavioral analysts. Although, it is just in the last few decades that the interest in this topic has grown exponentially in the field of behavioral sciences and in the domain of public policies.
Agenda Setting: This was propounded by McCombs and Donald Shaw in 1972. Here the mass media by paying attention to certain news items and relegating some others to the background ,sets public opinion and directs the mind of the people on what to think about Ralph, E Hanson states that ‘the theory holds that issues that are portrayed as important in the news media become important to the public-that is the media sets the agenda for public debate. If the media are not able to tell them what to think…perhaps they can tell them what to think about’ (p.59) Agenda setting wants to know if what interests the media also interests the public. For an example, the raid of corrupt judges by Directorate of Security Services (DSS) received much discussion and attention in Nigeria following the wide coverage by the media. The media have been able to direct a discussion in that area against other matters of national interest.
.1 Birth and definition This work was done from the perception that, increasingly, the interview has been used in several studies on the radio, but not always with the quality and rigor of satisfactory criteria for the enrichment of a good interview. To understand the interview technique and its use in radio, it is necessary to understand its origin. The word Interview, first appeared in Franch as Entrevue “Act of seeing each other, brief visit,” the Latin inter, "between" + vedere, "see." Journalism historians are divided about the birth of the interview. But according to Christopher Silvester, the interview came from Britain and the United States in the late nineteenth century.
At the end of 20th century, there are massive development of media and it changed society’s ways of communication (Mauria,1999). We are passing from face to face dialogue to asymmetrical mass media communication (Thompson, 1995). Means of communication creates new way for society to gain information and knowledge. According to Pradeep Kumar Dwivedi & Ingita Pandey (2013), media has a crucial role in rising of public awareness as well as collecting information and opinions on certain issue. Fiske (1987, cited in Rose, 1998) argues that television is the most powerful medium for framing public consciousness.