CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 INTRODUCTION: Newspaper firms have started to search for online delivery channels so as to retain the young readers. As a result, they have transferred a considerable amount of their delivery channels from print to online format. Most of the media firms have started to implement a 360-degree strategy that integrates content decisions “shaped by the potential to generate consumer value and returns through multiple platforms of expression of that content via a number of distribution outlets” (Doyle, 2010). In this modern age, people obtain information by means of the Internet. In a recent research, it is identified that next to television, people use internet to get to know the …show more content…
The theory explains “how individuals use mass communication to gratify their needs” (Burgeon, Hunsaker and Dawson, 1994, cited in Udende and Azeez, 2010, p. 34). The theory holds that “people influence the effects that mass media have on them” (Anaeto et al, 2008 cited in Edegoh, Asemah and Nwammuo, 2013, p. 23). The assumption of the theory is that people are not just passive receivers of media messages; rather, they actively influence the message effects. Media audience selectively choose, attend to, perceive and retain media offerings on the basis of their needs, beliefs, etc., thus, “there are as many reasons for using the media as there are media users” (Anaeto et al, 2008, p. 71). Uses and Gratification theory has also been used in models that attempt to identify how people choose among media. A good example is Lacy (2000), who suggested that five communication needs (surveillance, diversion, socio-cultural, interaction, decision making and self-understanding) combine with other variables like quantity of news and media featured such as cost to determine how much time people will spend with various
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Businesses are slowly making the transition over to online selling and advertising, marketing their products to more people than ever before. Consumer culture has never been as large as it is now, and it will only grow larger as the years go by and that is almost entirely due to media. Comparatively, in the beginning media was mostly contained to papers, prints, and magazines. Later emerged the radio, television, and after that the internet and social media. The purpose of widespread media has changed over time as well.
Analysis of Nicholas Carr’s “Is Google Making Us Stupid?" Nicholas Carr (2008/2010 p.89) argues a prophetic warning--As a culture relying on computers to facilitate all knowledge of the world, is artificial intelligence preferable to a thoughtful and meditative human mind? With the all-encompassing internet influencing an entire population, is it the cause of altering mental habits of a nation? Carr, along with his friends and acquaintances, admit to similar experiences-- having their brains remapped and reprogramed by virtue of years of internet usage. Citing facts and statistics, he paints a vivid picture of how our mind is shaped and what our intellectual future might hold.
Bernie Bishop Mazda is a large automotive client in Medford who wanted to cancel all advertising in their local market and focus on print advertising in outer markets. Local Account Executive Gary Hall reviewed customized Polk data with the dealer and explained the benefits of a digital campaign with Spectrum Reach. Instead of canceling advertising and switching to print, Bernie Bishop Mazda expanded their video budget and added a digital campaign containing targeted content, increasing their monthly spend by 125%! Gary continues to meet with this client monthly to assess the campaign 's performance and review their Google Analytics. Their bottom line has already increased 3.3% to date.
The strength and effects of mass media are expressed perfectly in Denis McQuail’s article “The Influence and Effects of Mass Media.” McQuail does not really focus on the educational spectrum of mass media like Lunsford. Instead he tries to provide useful information about how mass media effects society as a whole and how there can be power gained from ownership of mass media. Instead of just thinking of mass media as a website that teenagers get on to post what they are eating for lunch or what they had to do that day, McQuail looks deeper and writes about how mass media can lead to political and economic power. One example from his article is when he writes about how mass media “can attract and direct attention to problems, solutions or people” and can also be useful in the forms of “persuasion and mobilization.”
The main objectives in chapter 9 include the ways media attempt to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, and/or behavior, ways media technology can be disruptive and have adverse effects on behavior, the positive and negative influences of certain kinds of media, such as advertisements or reality television programs, on self-image. Even though media is a great outlet, media has changed our generation causing effects on self-image and human interactions. Because of its pervasiveness in American culture, the media affects people in both obvious and subtle ways. Modern media comes in many different formats, including newspapers, magazines, television, social media, etc.
This debate reflects a wider, familiar issue in the research literature concerning whether children are active media savvy consumers, or vulnerable innocents. For example Buckingham’s (2007) main argument is that this polarisation is indeed constructed and that the truth probably lies somewhere in between the two. He contends that the growth of a consumer society is a complex social development which cannot be understood, explained or blamed solely on advertising and marketing. This polarisation of the debate is seen again in the gap between industry research on marketing, and sometimes highly critical blame-led academic research. It seems that the research field between the two should be explored more, as this would help construct a balanced debate and contribute towards consistency in the conceptualisation of the issue and measurement techniques (Sandberg 2011).
According to Baran (2012) mass communication can be defined as “the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences.” This essay aims to discuss the degree to which we are shaped by our interaction with the media. In order to achieve the aforementioned aim of this essay I will focus on the following: limited-effects theory, two-step flow theory, attitude change theory and agenda setting. The limited effects theory sets out that media influence is based on individual and social characteristics.
The most important thing in media is the internet it’s the main component in the media I am very excited to talk about the importance of internet that interest me also interest you. The importance of internet and why it’s important for us?. They use this kind of medium to get information about all kinds topics they need”(Temmel,M (.n.d)).Also we use the internet to communicate with others, actually the internet help us to get many news via social media for example whatsapp and instagram and snap chat also many others apps help
This is because the content of mass media is very powerful and it has become a agent of socialization which can shape people’s behavior or even influence the ways of how people think. There are many agents of socialization that can influence an individual lifestyle and one of the agent is mass media, which means that mass media can affect an individual self-concept, attitudes, or other orientations toward life especially the adolescents. The fact that there was a time when the internet, television and cell phones were considered a necessity but now the mass media seems to be more of a commodity to teenagers, because we can see that most of the adolescents tend to spend more time on the electronic devices rather than going for outdoor activities. Based on the researched, we found out that every people in the society
Fifth, they persuade us to buy certain items or accept certain ideas, and sixth, they entertain us. The number of hours we spend consuming the media is mind-boggling. This amount is ever increasing. For better or worse, we are inextricably linked to the media. We are now living a media culture and its influence is becoming very pervasive (Mohd Hamdan Adnan 2003)
Advertisers use TV ads to influence people and increase their sales. According to Munaza shakeel, first tool used to retrieve information was books, magazines, and newspapers then there was photography, sound recording, radio, films and television and now there is internet. These different phases of media development have different influences on society. When there was no radio
Media are platforms of mass communication that can be categorized as either new of traditional media, with new media being forms of communication that make use of technologies such as the Internet, and traditional media being more conventional forms of media such as newspapers. Media, primarily new media, is getting more popular and influential, especially in today’s day and age since we are exposed to it a lot more than in the past and also since media is more easily accessible now. The media can shape our behaviours, perceptions and opinions, and it is important to know how people are influenced and impacted by it. The media can influence someone’s perception of social reality, or perceptions of beauty or even influence people’s behaviours and habits and therefore, the media does shape who we are. One way that the media can shape who we are is by influencing our perception of social reality.
Literature Review There are various studies that shows the effects of the use of technology on teenagers. Several studies show the positive effects of the technological gadgets and services. Other studies reveal the negative effects of these technological products. Some of the studies have found both positive and negative effects of technology on teenagers. Positive Effects of Technology
Within this critical literature review, the article which will be under analysis is “low- income families and coping through brands: Inclusion or stigma?” which was written by Kathy Hamilton in 2012. The article concentrates on the coping strategies used by single parents and low-income families to avoid stigmatisation and threats upon their social identities. Therefore, to avoid stigmatisation these low-income families may take part in conspicuous consumption where families may spend a lot of money on luxury goods to make themselves look better, which can give them a sense of economic power and acceptance within society. However, due to the rise of ‘chav’ culture surrounding single mothers, it can be much harder to move away from stigmatisation,
Impact of Digital Marketing and Online Brand Alliance A Case of Wal-Mart and Amazon 2.0 Literature review 2.1 Introduction This chapter explains the objectives and variables of the study under the light of previous scholars to develop a clear understanding on this topic. This chapter entails the studies on current topic by past researchers and scholars. This chapter highlights the impact of digital marketing and brand alliance in the case of Wal-Mart and amazon in view of previous scholars and researchers. The relationship is observed in case of Wal-Mart and amazon brand alliance.