In The Fire Next Time by James Baldwin, the author uses aphorisms, deductive reasoning, and a particular use of pronouns to appeal to the reader’s emotions. His purpose is to persuade the reader to agree with him, and he does this by creating a common enemy using these techniques. He appeals to the reader’s emotions, making them feel like a victim of society, and then offering condolence and support. Baldwin uses aphorisms to appeal to the reader’s emotions and persuade them into agreeing with him. One of his most powerful aphorisms reads as follows: “You were born where you were born and faced the future that you faced because you were black and for no other reason” (Baldwin 7).
Like a lot of other books in our curriculum Catcher in the Rye teaches a moral lesson. Throughout the novel it depicts Holden and his struggles society and how he copes with it. The novel’s possible theme is that one should not conform to societal norms and to just be yourself. Holden dislikes people that conform to the norms of society and constantly calls them phony. In conclusion, the novel Catcher in the Rye should be banned because of its inappropriate and sexual topics.
I am firmly opposed to the manipulation of one’s subjects for the better of the ruler. Machiavelli’s concept for a prince’s soldiers is a malicious brainwash. A feared ruler will only induce despise from his people. I regard Machiavelli’s justification for a prince containing aspects of evil to be a unethical form of governing a society. His depiction of a feared ruler disregards the prosperity of his people and does not account for their pursuit of happiness.
Within society, one can argue hazing from multiple sides of the spectrum. On one side, one can argue that hazing is unnecessary in society due to its horrifying effects upon both an individual and a group. The event of the plebes’ hazing against a fellow plebe evidently exhibits this argument’s validity. On the other side, one can argue that hazing is necessary in society for the positive effects. In the text, the plebes unify to protect Bentley and share the suffering as a group.
George Orwell’s “desire to push the world in a certain direction, to alter other people’s idea of the kind of society that they should strive after” can also be seen through Ian Leslie’s strategies in his book, Curious. In the book, Leslie demonstrates excellent use of rhetorical strategies to convince his reader of his thesis that knowledge is the force which powers beneficial curiosity. Leslie even goes as far as to say that curiosity without any previous knowledge can be dangerous. Throughout the book, Ian Leslie attempts to push the world in the direction of his thoughts, and convince them that knowledge truly is the key to positive curiosity. The use of real world examples and statistics give credibility to Leslie's argument, and demonstrate other viewpoints.
The character to do so in the story Candide is the philosopher, Martin. However, although he has a pessimistic personality, it gives also provides him with the gift of reason. His sense of reason shows when Candide says "Surely you must be possessed by the devil," and Martin replies "He is so deeply concerned in the affairs of this world," answered Martin, "that he may very well be in me, as well as in everybody else; but I own to you that when I cast an eye on this globe, or rather on this little ball, I cannot help thinking that God has abandoned it to some malignant being…” (Voltaire, 100) Martin not taking note of Candide’s sense of humor, replies with a serious speech, he ponders the whole meaning of what he says and gives them a wholehearted answer. Being possessed by the devil is simply not possible, Martin knows this for himself and shows it by responding to Candide with a logical approach. Another example of Martin’s pessimistic yet realistic ideas can be seen when Candide asks him “But for what end, then, has this world been formed?” Martin replies, “To plague us to death” With this answer, he manages to completely omit and positivity that might have been able to be included.
Candide In Candide, Voltaire uses literary devices to convey the idea of optimism when facing the misfortunes of the world. Voltaire uses alot of juxtaposition, symbolism, and irony to indicate the challages people may face and the optomistic views in the world. Voltaire has deep pessimistic values on human nature which shines through the glittering portrait of the harminous utopian society. Voltaire sheds light on the psychological idea of optomism versus pessimism. Voltaire also identifies the good and evil that is portrayed in the world and among human nature.
This is evident in Mond’s dialogue. For example, “Ending is better than mending. The more stitches, the less riches.” The reader can predict that Mond is wise since he gives advice to the public on how one should act. Initially, the reader will believe that Mond knows what is best for the World State because he defends the motto of “Community, Identity, and Stability.” In order to create the plot, Huxley introduces Mustapha Mond as an element of credibility.
It shows that evil/ bad actions are done by humans so they are the faults of humans. Candied is titled as optimism that represents the theme. This philosophy of optimism in the novella is Pangloss, Caddie’s tutor. Voltaire created the character of Pangloss as comic to prove the invalidity of his philosophy. The optimistic philosophy appeared not only in England but throughout Europe.
In the novella Candide, Voltaire expresses his disdainful opinion about optimistic philosophers of the Enlightenment by using satirical elements such as exaggeration, irony, and Burlesque to further develop the theme of the recklessness of optimism. Throughout the book, the main character Candide and his mentor, Pangloss, suffer and witness various misfortunes but fail to find a connection to any greater good. Voltaire’s reasoning for writing Candide is to point out the absurdity of the optimistic philosophy, which concludes that God must be perfect and that the world he created must be perfect as well. To these enlightenment thinkers, like Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, the idea that the existence of any “evil in the world”(Voltaire 141)