Dyslexia, as defined by the Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity (2017) is “due to a difficulty in a phonological processing which affects the ability of an individual to speak, read, spell and write.” It is often seen that students with Dyslexia typically do not read fluently. They tend to peruse at a slower pace and perusing for these students requires extreme exertion. Students who have Dyslexia struggle with memorizing, spelling, and understanding material. A student with Dyslexia may have trouble with decoding the order of letters, trouble with spelling and writing along with difficulty in listening and reading comprehension. Despite Dyslexia being a condition that is lifelong, it is important to realize that Dyslexia does not limit one’s level of intelligence.
Some children may have conditions such as Dyslexia, ADHD, Downs Syndrome or Autism, which will cause their communication to be different. They may find it hard to interpret what an adult is asking them to do or they may not be able to communicate what they want to say in a way for an adult to understand them. Hearing and Physical impairments will also have an effect on communication. Hearing impairments in a child or adult will create a barrier in communication where the listener will have to use a different form of communication such as sign language or using pictures and gestures. Physical impairments would include disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida in the child or adult.
A person with Broca’s aphasia may comprehend speech, particularly when the grammatical structure of the spoken language is simple. However they find it harder to understand sentences with more complex grammatical construct. Individuals with this type of aphasia can read; however they lack the ability to write. Broca’s aphasia results from injury to speech and language brain areas such the left hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus, among others. Such damage is often a result of stroke but may also occur due to brain trauma.
Also, 49% of parents of children with dyslexia may have it too. They symptoms of dyslexia are different in different people. Some children may have trouble reading and writing. Some children may have trouble with spelling and telling left from right.
Children with this disability struggle to differentiate and produce phonemes or sounds in order to construct words. Articulation disorders involves errors in producing sounds. The individual omits, substitutes, distorts, or adds speech sounds such as a lisp. Voice
Stuttering is a disorder affecting fluency of speech, through interruption of the flow of speech by certain obstacles; repetitions, prolongations, blocks, interjection and others, negative reaction of the speaker to these interruptions inform of avoidance and struggle, and negative reaction of the listener to these interruptions which cause variable degrees of dys-prosody with the resultant poor intelligibility of a speech ]1[. Although a variety of theories have been proposed to explain its etiology, the exact cause of stuttering is still unknown ]2[. The relation between stuttering and language is especially intuitive in young children. Several scholars have noted that stuttering onset, typically between ages 2 and 4, coincides with the critical
According to Tracy Huber (2008, 1) “A teacher’s most essential job is to help students gain and retain knowledge —to take true ownership of what they have learned.” Through this quote we can interpret that learners need support such as concrete manipulatives to perform the necessary task in order to grasp the concepts. However concrete manipulatives have an important part to play in a learners schooling life especially towards maths. In my essay below I will explain the conceptual and procedural knowledge, the history of manipulatives, my understanding of concrete manipulatives, ways in which manipulatives can support students, how manipulatives help students gain conceptual knowledge and how a grade 3 teacher can teach Cuisenaire rods in equivalent
This study aimed to investigate the effect of explicit sight word instruction on reading speed of elementary EFL students. Sight words are generally well-defined as those words that are not decodable by Ordinary English phonics instructions and that appear often in text (Hood, 1977). These words are found in 50-70% of written texts (Harris & Sipay, 1975). Additionally, all three theoretic methods to reading instruction—synthetic (Chall, 1970), authentic (Goodman, 1986) and interactive (Rumelhart, 1994)—obviously address the significance of inserting sight word in reading instruction. Although many learners are able to recognize words accurately, they spend extreme time and energy in the process of word recognition, which may lead to a breakdown of comprehension.
The 'o' in 'home' is not pronounced the same way as the 'o' in 'glove'. In fact, research shows that the difficulty of developing a strong visual memory for irregular words actually undermines the students' ability to decode phonologically sound words as well. While it is estimated that about 80% of the English language follows phonetic rules, students with weak orthographic processing begin to distrust all words"(Orthographic processing). The previous quotations, show that the effect of visual memory and or-thographic processing is not only on spelling, but also on the other lan-guage skills. Therefore, by developing this cognitive process we can de-velop different language skills, thanks to the extended effect of this factor.
Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability. In itself, dyslexia is a cluster of symptoms, either basic or severe. People think dyslexia is all about reading, while in fact, it is reading, writing and pronunciation. According to the International Dyslexia Association (2018), “Students with dyslexia often experience difficulties with both oral and written language skills, such as writing, and pronouncing words” (para. 1).
There is a lot of confusion over who is and who is not dyslexic, but there are other reasons children may struggle with reading. Even though dyslexia is the major reason for reading issues, there are some children that have fluency or comprehension problems. These can be caused by various factors, but these children do not have problems with the phonological component of language. Many people also think if a child reverses letters or sees words backwards, they are dyslexic. This phenomenon has nothing to do with dyslexia.
As assessments scores are recorded, I will know whether the lessons are on the right level or whether I teach all the topics effectively. I will also learn what areas students need to work on, which points need reviewing and whether I should spend more or less time on this material with the next course students. It is also important because I will have an evidence of students’ learning journey. It is required by funding body to regularly inform about students’ progress. The class profile form will show if the students achieve the outcomes and goals.