Focus groups are a good example of a semi-structured interview and are also considered to be a type of qualitative research. Focus groups are usually informal discussions amongst eight or twelve participants. It is unstructured and guided by a researcher to keep the group from on track not to steer away from the primary topic; the researcher also encourages participants to answer questions to the related topic in their own words and to elaborate on their responses. (Joseph et al, 2003, 135) not in the bibliography Our research study will focus on a semi-structured interview approach, where a semi structured questionnaire will be drafted to gather information from the interviewee. This questionnaire will be used as our data collection tool in order to collect information on the alternative burial methods offered by the City of Cape Town in the southern sub district and how government will go about implementing these alternatives to the public.
Descriptive phenomenology is the method of choice in this study since the researcher is interested in seeking objective and unbiased findings within the participants’ answers. As well as searching for forms inside the meanings of the studied phenomena by asking participants who have experienced phenomena using open exploratory questions (Guignon, 2012). However, if the researcher aims to reveal the hidden meaning instead of the normal one and go beyond from description to interpretation then interpretative phenomenology is the method of choice (Cooney,
The counter claim of this issue is that it is possible to attain knowledge from history despite biases. History tries to make us understand facts but to prove them we need to perform experiments that might fail but give us a clue of how to try it by another way. When opposing ideas and beliefs come together, people come together to share their knowledge or debate about it. It could maybe bring us closer to the
The reason behind this choice is that semi-structured interviews follow a strategically planned set of questions to be answered, however the interviewer gives the interviewee the freedom to freely express himself and his thoughts during the process. One general problem when conducting qualitative interviews, with open-ended questions, is that the interview is affected by the interest and opinions of the interviewer. Semi-structured interviews are rather organized in terms of what issue will be discussed during the interview but the follow-up questions will be depending on the opinions of the interviewer. Another problem that can occur is misunderstandings and misinterpretations of words. This could in particular be a problem within this research since interviews have been conducted in English language, which is not the mother tongue, for neither the respondents nor the
Based on Messick (1996), validity is defined as "an overall evaluative judgment of the degree to which empirical evidence and theoretical rationales support the adequacy and appropriateness of interpretations and actions based on the test scores or other methods of measurement" (p. 221). Therefore, validity is the interpretations of test scores. In fact, validation is not directly related to test, however it's related to the inferences and interpretations regarding the test scores. It is said that washback is inextricably bound up with test scores' interpretations and inferences. According to Messick (1996) and Hamp-Lyons (1998) washback is considered as subcategory of construct or consequential validity.
Qualitative research is intimidating to many because it involves talking to people, learning about the culture and language, revising surveys to fit the community’s definitions and views, and revisiting people. With qualitative data, one cannot punch data immediately after the initial interview; this data takes a lot of time to fully gather. Additionally, qualitative data is seen as softer compared to quantitative. Thus when publishing and presenting research, Cropley explains that it is important to be upfront with one’s bias and to be skeptical of one’s own data. The best way to seem valid is to outline the methods and exact steps used and to ensure they are clean.
During the introduction phase, the interviewer’s goal is to develop rapport. Building rapport is essential at the beginning of the interview since the interviewee will be questioned by complete strangers such as police officers, detectives, and psychologists. In addition, the appearances of the interviewer (badge, uniform, police gear, etc.) may create a psychological barrier between the interviewer and the interviewee (Geiselman & Fisher, 2014). To alleviate the barrier of anxiety and mistrust, the interviewer can ask general questions such as.
Though it doesn’t work like a camera as people construct and store information in a manner that makes it understanding to them. People do this to information by trying to put it in our schemas. Schemas can also question the reliability of eyewitness testimony, as they can cause distortion to memory or unconsciously modify information in order to relate with our current knowledge/ schemas. This can be seen in Bartlett’s study, where participants heard a story and had to recall and tell to another person, like “Chinese Whispers”. Each participant recalled the story in their individual interpretation such as; the passages became shorter, ideas and details of the story were modified.
The idea of confirmability is the subjective concern to what is objective. Here, strides must be taken to guarantee beyond what many would consider possible that the findings are the really the outcome rather than what the researcher wanted it to be (Patton, 2015). The confirmability concept is our comparable concern to objectivity. We assure this by providing and presenting the research findings and the result of the experiences and ideas of our qualified respondents rather than to our preference and characteristics’ viewpoint. The test for those included in teaching courses in research strategies lies in guaranteeing that those examining undertaking qualitative research are not just mindful of the reactions commonly made by its detractors yet they are additionally cognizant of the procurements which can be made to address matters, for example, validity, transferability, reliability and confirmability.
Interview is often question-based, with the question being asked by the interviewer and responses must be as explicit and stated clearly and in detail. There are various types of interview but in this study the researcher used Informal Conversational or in-depth unstructured interview. In this type of interview the questions emerge from the immediate context and are asked in the natural setting of behaviour. The questions were modified and changed according to the participants responses. It provides depth knowledge to the investigator to talk about the subject in terms of their own way.